- The Computer for the 21st Century, Mark Weiser, Scientific American, September 1991, pp. 94 - 104.
- Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing, Gregory Abowd, Elizabeth Mynatt, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7(1), 2000, pp. 29 - 58.
Yanbing Xue 12:15:21 10/1/2014
The first paper is mainly about ubiquitous computing which is the idea of integrating computers into the world. Then, they present prototype tabs, pads, and boards which can be just the beginning of ubiquitous computing. They suggest three technology requirements for ubiquitous computing: cheap, low-power computers, software for ubiquitous applications, and a network that connects them. This paper also gives a scenario of ubiquitous computing and mentions a privacy problem. There are couple of reasons for this. One of the reasons is that the computer screen is a demanding focus of attention which won't allow it to disappear in the environment. Ubiquitous computing, therefore could be achieved through different metaphor and come in different sizes. The authors gives the example that a normal room is actually surrounded by hundreds of computers. They would be in the format of tabs, pads and board-size writing and display surfaces. The author then gives examples of how these three different sized elements could be equipped in the room. They also focus on the interactions of all of them. Technologies are required such as chap, low-power computers with convenient displays softwares and networks. Details are discussed in the following paragraphs. For example, current window displays are not suitable for ubiquitous purpose since they typically assume that a particular computer will display all the information for a single application. Solutions could be approached by changing the protocols by which the applications communicate with displays of different sizes. Network could provide other challenges. Although the network could work very fast, there are still problems connecting wired and wireless networks transparently. A mobile device could provide solution such that a single device is used to serve all three functions. It will be interesting to see if the next generation of computer science research yields a network that can serve the demands of a ubiquitous system. ---------- The second paper is mainly about the brief history of ubiquitous computing through exploration of three interaction themes and outlines some remaining challenges. In addition, the authors posit a new area of applications research, everyday computing. First, the paper reviews the history of ubiquitous computing from three aspects: natural interfaces, context-aware computing and automated capture and access for live experiences. The paper also emphasizes the intersection of intrusion as well as blending in with the natural interaction with every day events. The use of location based technologies can ease the life of the user, without intruding. They like to use the example of a classroom a lot when talking about capturing in the fourth part. This paper bring out a different aspects of interaction inspired by widespread access to information and computational capabilities. They are three themes of ubiquitous applications: natural interface, context-aware, and automate capture. Then the paper explains the necessity for research to explore the continuous every activities which is called everyday computing. Discussing the three aspects of interaction in ubiquitous computing, the natural interface is most important requirement and has been studied intensively. As the requirement is about natural interaction between human and computer, the keyboard, mouse and display paradigm is being replace by the way human interacts with real world. Besides the challenges mentioned before, the inherent challenges for all streams that mentioned include social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. At last, the author points out the ubiquitous computing system is not meant to be work as independent and single applications for single tasks but a flow-free and integrative system that provides convenience of daily life in a fluent and natural way.
Wei Guo 18:26:45 10/1/2014
Reading Critique for the Computer for the 21st Century The most profound technologies, such as language and writing, are highly merged in our world. The computer as one of the ubiquitous technologies, is integrating into the human society background, too. The ubiquitous computing begins with the live boards. People use it as a tool to better pass out information. The wired and wireless network is a big step of ubiquitous computing. Through this, people share data, share knowledge and share other information. There are also many advantages of ubiquitous computers: Invisible, socialization, decision-making, emergent behavior, information processing, enhancing experience, and convergence. The ubiquitous computing models share a vision of small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly common-place ends.( https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Ubiquitous_computing.html) Under this mode, computer will disappear from human’s visible area. At the same time, people can get access and deal with information any time, any place, in any way. So that the interaction between human and computer devices will no long depends on command line or graphical interface, but in a very natural way. Natural enough for user to ignore the existence of computer. Reading critique for Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper mainly demonstrates natural interface which facilitate a richer variety of communications capabilities between human and computation. Since ubiquitous computing is letting people get access and deal with information any time and any place using any method, the interaction between computer and human relying on graphical interface and command line are out date. The natural interface this paper comes up with is suit for ubiquitous computing needs. Natural interface should be designed as not only support the most basic fundamental operations, but also able to deal with speech, gesture, handwriting… On the way to design good natural interface, a lot of problems occur. It’s impossible to eliminate errors when doing recognition tasks. Although problems happen, natural interface is more and more popular. Just like the author indicates: the computers are design to better help people. To better help people, use the natural way as people use to understand the user requirements are the most important part.
nro5 (Nathan Ong) 20:27:31 10/1/2014
Review of "Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing" by Gregory Abowd and Elizabeth Mynatt The authors present a survey paper of the recent research in ubiquitous computing, which is essentially the idea that computers coexists with our environment to augment our experiences, both through items we normally think of as computers, such as smartphones or desktops, and with objects not commonly associated with technology, like a house or street. As common in survey papers, the authors present a short history of approaches to ubiquitous computing and present possible future research directions. The authors chose to highlight what ubiquitous computing has done for humanity when recounting history. Generally, the research that was done towards the end of helping users was done under limited release situations, during the era of when Palm Pilots were the world's introduction to smart cellular phones. While there were many research groups taking a look at some aspects of ubiquitous computing, their approach was generally moving the computerized world into the physical world. A huge focus was on the communication aspect, where researchers attempted to alleviate the difficulty of humans interfacing with computers. While GUIs, keyboards, and mice are great starts, research has also attempted to move into speech, gestures, etc. These methods of communication would also be more useful to ubiquitous computing aspects, where relying on a keyboard and mouse for input would be impossible. However, the authors also mention that these modes of communication are still very faulty, since natural data tends to be noisy, which makes it difficult to distinguish user intent. With the four categories that the authors lay out, the authors also suggest that current problems can also be research directions. For example, while sound data is extremely noisy, work can be done in mitigating the noise or developing algorithms for speech recognition in spite of the noise. Many of the problems that researchers encounter now do not have easy solutions, and developing workarounds or techniques to solve these problems will definitely speed up the process of finding newer research directions. Many of these problems tend to be the brick walls for ubiquitous computing, meaning that ubiquitous computing cannot exist or do their tasks well without solving these problems. It seems that the forefront of ubiquitous computing research should be directed at these problems, and only then will ubiquitous computing will reach its singularity. Review of “The Computer for the 21st Century” by Mark Weiser The paper describes Weiser’s vision of ubiquitous computing in the future as imagined in 1991. He describes three different general sizes (tab, pad, and board) for different ubiquitous computing elements and provides a sample scenario of a user in a ubiquitous computing world. The author mentions that he believed his own vision would come to life 20 years from then, which would have been 2011. Unfortunately, there has been a lot of pushback from the general population and the lack of infrastructure updates. People in the United States are extremely concerned about their privacy, and it is obvious that they would be apprehensive towards adopting any form of technology that could track their movements or listen to their conversations. Ubiquitous computing requires a lot of trust that the systems will work to keep your own information safe, even though they are connected to the “Internet of Things,” but given the recent activities of hackers and leaks by Edward Snowden, it is safe to say that people in the US will be unlikely to adopt these kinds of technologies soon. It seems more work needs to be done on personal identification security first before people will be able to accept ubiquitous computing. Regarding the lack of infrastructure updates, the United States is behind the times when compared to other first-world nations when it comes to average upload and download speeds. According to OOKLA Net Index (http://www.netindex.com/), the United States ranks 25th in download speeds in 2008, with an average speed of 29.86 Mbps. Akamai in 2013 listed the United States as 10th at 10.0 Mbps. This is behind many countries in Europe and Asia. Undoubtedly, the United States can argue that their country is large in terms of land area and upgrading previously existing systems is expensive. However, the demand for faster Internet already exists, but costs are exorbitantly high. According to CNN (http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/03/31/broadband.south.korea/), South Korean internet costs about $30 a month, while US internet costs around $45. In order for ubiquitous computing to be adopted, there is no choice but to upgrade the infrastructure and lower the cost for connecting to the internet.
Bhavin Modi 21:11:02 10/1/2014
Reading Critique on The Computer for the 21st Century An enlightening discussion on Ubiquitous computing, what it means and the technology to achieve it. The aim is to make computers reside in the background and make us eventually unaware of their presence so that they are not the point of focus in our environment. The word ubiquitous means present everywhere, but here it has an added aspect. It means present everywhere such that we are interacting with them without being aware of where they are and actually thinking about how we should interact. There is clear distinction shown between ubiquitous computing and virtual reality. They are not the same, we do not want to lose ourselves in the world of computers and miss out on all the social aspects and all that the universe has to offer. We want the computers to merge into our existing environment and enhance it, the statement on working while strolling in the woods, sounds real good doesn’t it. The paper introduces much new technology in the form of active badges, tabs, pads and boards to demonstrate the concept. The goal is not only to make the computers smaller, but also flexible, the use of micro-kernels to manipulate software according to the hardware and the use of the device is an innovative concept. Treating the computers are abstract living objects that are aware of their location and the location of its owner to configure itself accordingly. The concerns of privacy and misuse if information gathered by rogue tablets is addressed. The example of Sal in the paper gives a view of the author’s vision, and it is much like the watching a sci-fi movie in the beginning of the 21st century, customizing displays and information to the needs of individual users by the same device. Xerox PARC has always has a pioneer in research and this paper published in 1991 clearly depicts the technology we have today, it anticipated the trends precisely and most probably gave shape to them. It again emphasizes the point of decades old research papers are today’s technology. The idea of mapping ubiquitous computing to having hundreds of computer in a room, is not something I would agree with. With technological advancement we are integrating all devices into one, the desktop, the phone, the tablet. A single point of interaction for all your tasks, makes it convenient without the need to remember what does what. Secondly the interfaces are still maturing and multitouch and multimodal devices to make interaction more natural is the key. We will interact with computers (not necessarily desktops and laptops) like everyday objects like pen and paper. The concept can be well understood by thinking of having a virtual human being by our side, who knows exactly where you are and what you are doing and helps you achieve your tasks more efficiently by doing them for you, letting you concentrate on the more important matters. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Reading Critique on Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing Building on the research by Mark Weiser (Who coined the term ubicomp) at Xerox PARC, the paper discusses the existing technology in the field of ubiquitous computing and the future researches needed. An in-depth introduction to every aspect regarding proliferation of computing into the physical world. The paper highlights the three major interaction themes natural interfaces, context-aware applications and automated capture and access. The major advantages are talked about and problems are shown as possible future research areas. Ubiquitous is defined as scale of operations in terms of people, number and interactions possible, and the current applications like the Tivoli project, Audio Aura, Flatland that try to achieve it. The concept of time stamping of events in a recording so that people can focus on only that aspect and at the time creating records of important events marked by the user. The recognition efforts of computing is not accurate enough and is unable to match that of humans. As a result the use of modules for repeated use is needed for reusable libraries. For context based applications the five W’s when, where, what, why and who should be explored as basic requirements. Everyday computing incorporates all these areas to describe the needs of today. The problem lies in the fact that the projects in this field are hard to evaluate and there is no clearly beginning and end, also user studies are difficult to carry out due to sheer number of variables. As a result it is not a widely accepted paradigm and so one needs to identify basic human needs and show how the application satisfies it. Useful information is collected by prototype implementation in the real world, as experiments in closed labs is not an option. The social implication are an area of concern, and the solutions provided to the problems of privacy, security and maybe copyrights too, are not adequate. The misuse of such technology by companies for marketing and targeting individuals and by other people for illegal gains and to find someone location is a valid concern. This is a complete transform form the traditional interface and computing paradigm and will take time for user acceptance.
Wenchen Wang 22:56:34 10/1/2014
<The Computer for the 21st Century> <Summary> With the principle that most profound technologies disappear in the way are we freed to use them without thinking, this paper proposes a thought of ubiquitous computers. Ubiquitous computing means computing is made to appear everywhere and anywhere.<Paper Review> Ubiquitous computers lead to the goal for deploying hundreds of computers per room, so that computers will come to be invisible to common awareness. This will achieve the goal that users could use the computer without awareness. To be specific, the paper introduces prototype tabs, pads and boards as the beginning of ubiquitous computing. However, tabs, pads and boards are only the basic thoughts. The technology that involving for ubiquitous computing needs cheap low-power computers, software and network. Ubiquitous computing is a very novel thought that have not been implemented yet. But I believe it is a right direction for future computers. <Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing> <Summary> The paper is a summary of ubiquitous computing in terms of natural interfaces, ubicomp context-aware computing and automatic capture and access to everyday experiences. It also proposes the challenge of ubicomp and what we should do to improve ubicomp in the future. <Paper Review> The traditional GUI is not able to support ubicomp due to its unnatural properties. So natural interfaces should replace GUI, which are more natural way for human communication, such as handwriting, speech and gestures. However, error cannot be avoid completely during using the natural interface. For example, speech recognizer cannot guarantee 100% accuracy. So decreasing error probability is a challenge and also a future work to do. One of the important thing of context-aware computing is context fusion. We are able to obtain much more information from context fusion that assembled from a combination of related context services. Nowadays, I think amazon is applying context fusion technique to collect their browsing history and generate related suggestion list of products. When we open the homepage, we could get lots of recommendations classified by different categories. Another aspect is capture and access everyday experience considering obtain and playback capability. I think it is relative difficult because we need to decide which parts are important for users and which parts are not. It could apply some machine learning techniques.
Longhao Li 23:03:28 10/1/2014
Critique for The Computer for The 21st Century This paper talked about the future trend of the development of computer, which is Ubiquitous computing. The author also gave us some ideas about what the computer will be in the future. I think this paper is important for the development of computer technology. It not just introduced the ubiquitous computing. It actually gave us an idea about what will be the trend of the mainstream development of computer technology. Due to the development of technology, we can make devices that are so small but so powerful. These devices can bring us the possibility to bring computing into every corner of our everyday life. We can use computer to assist us for jobs, by which means that we can let computers be our secretary that works for 24/7. We can let them to turn on or turn off lights or air conditioning. We can let them to park cars and even drive on the way. People no longer restricted on windows based interface or some virtual reality. Thus I think it can stand for the trend of computer development, and we actually can see some sign of it in recently computer achievements. In the article, the author said that in the future, computer screens will become big and with high resolutions. It turns out to be accomplished. Retina display that first introduced by Apple has become popular in products, and it will become commonly used in the future. The author also said some ideas that have achieved today. Using computer on pad has become the reality. People can carry with a ten-inch screen pad to control light, to monitoring product line or even to do piano/guitar performance. The author is very accurate on prediction. It may due to comprehensive analysis of the development of society, technology and computers. I think ubiquitous computing will become more popular in the future. Critique for charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing In general, this paper, talked about what is ubiquitous computing and some related research results. It also included some points that need to care about when developing ubiquitous computing and some case studies. Basically, this paper summarized the development of ubiquitous computing. It points out important things involved in the development. The author talked about the interfaces, since ubiquitous computing didn’t limited by the keyboard-mouse interface. Many possible interfaces can be generated. Most of them are natural interface, which use natural user input like speech, handwriting and gestures. Carefully use of these interfaces can bring users a natural feeling on using computers. For example, speech interface can bring user a feeling of conversation, if the speech interface implement properly. Also there are some context-aware interfaces, which using some information related users behavior, like GPS information. By using GPS location changes, we achieved navigation. Also we can use the information about how long does the user stay in one place to determine users’ habit so that we can give user some guidance, like treated the place that stay at for the most time as home so that the system can give user the information for how long they can drive to home or some traffic information. These ideas are important for developers so that I think this paper are important for the development of ubiquitous computing. Due to the time change, ubiquitous computing has become more popular than before. People like to use cell phone to access Internet when they are away from computers. People can use computer to do some actions that they have to do manually before, such as open windows, change temperature on air conditioning. It can be sure that ubiquitous computing will be much more popular in the future. I believe that this are of study will contribute a lot on human technology.
Qiao Zhang 0:03:04 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century In this paper, the author is concerned about the problem that computers so far cannot "vanish into the background" of users' everyday life. The computers are in a world of its own, approachable only through complex jargons. The author then distinguishes virtual reality between ubiquitous computing. The difference is that VR does not utilize the infinite richness of the universe. He then proposes embodied virtuallity, with built-in-room tabs that provide traditional white board like functions. I like the idea to tailor the content on bulletin board for each different user. It relates to the previous paper of context-aware interaction or mixed-initiative human computer interaction. The difference is that it is actually device-device communication that enhances the human-device interaction. He then addresses several key issues for making hundreds of computers per room possible, such as cost, energy, software support, network, storage, processing speed, scalability, etc. The author envisions future ubiquitous computing by using an imaginary example of a user's life. I would see that some ideas illustrated in this paper which published back in 1991 are already achieved today. Even though I don't think inside one room there are hundreds of computers, I am confident that there are at least 10 computers (generally speaking). As the advent of personal wearable gadgets, I can imagine a huge market/research area in the near future. For instance, there might be some day that everybody owns a pair of google glasses. Or be more realistic, a health wristband. There are so many possibilities to use this growing number of devices. One interesting problem that the author mentions is the privacy problem. The intelligent computer raises a lot of privacy problems, such as what kind of data can a device access, how should the data be shared among devices etc. I have seen people worrying about Google Now because of the flight and hotel reminders which I find quite useful. However, this is the challenging point that different people have different aspects on privacy. =============================== Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper talks about the concerns and difficulties of ubiquitous computing. It points out three interaction themes: natural interfaces, context-aware applications and automated capture and access. It also provides some background on significant achievements in those areas as well as highlights some of the remaining challenges. The goal of ubicomp is to assist everyday life and not overwhelming it, breaking the human away from desktop-bound interaction. Ubicomp requires scaling with respect to people and time. The authors attempt to address some of the challenges, including natural data types, error-prone interaction paradigm, context-aware computing, automated capture and access to live experiences, everyday computing, etc. To address scaling with respect to time, the authors a new theme, called everyday computing, that promotes informal and unstructured activities typical of much of our everyday lives. These activities are continuous in time, which challenges the implicit assumption of most computer software that an action of a user has a clear beginning and end, without interruption and interferences. The automated capture and access part is of the most interest to me. When I was using the CourseMirror application, I found it a bit difficult to use (maybe it's just me). Because I have to think of interesting points and what I learnt about how I learn from the hindsight, I cannot immediately recall what to answer. I wanted to let the users to be able to naturally record their confusion about the content without requiring a lot of cognitive resources. For example, CourseMirror can record the lecture and let the student click on a button at the time she finds the content confusing. This paper suggests some related papers that I could potentially benefit from. The evaluation is difficult for ubicomp. Find a human need, do good user-centered feasibility research. There are also social and privacy issues for ubicomp, which is very intriguing. Again, visibility is emphasized to resolve the fear of the users.
QihangChen 0:04:53 10/2/2014
Paper Review for “The Computer for the 21st Century” I guess this paper is the start paper of “ubiquitous computing”, there is not much technique detail about it, but it did start a new era. This paper is published in 1991, and it is very interesting to see what the world is after about 20 years. There are two things they correctly predict, and these two things are actually almost the most important stuff in ubiquitous computing, I think. They are the widely use of pad, multiple sensors. They actually show the increasing ways of input and output methods. However, due to the technique limits at that time, there are things that are not predicted correctly in this paper. First, the most important one, the use of the internet. The internet was just invented at that time, thus it is very hard for them to see that the internet got so popular. The internet got faster and faster, and more and more applications are developed based on the internet. And now it is more and more close to be applicable for realizing ubiquitous computing. With the new IP system, almost all the devices can have their address, it makes it possible for people to control their devices from a long distance. The second is their idea of distributed computing. They did not talk much about distributed computing at that time. But distributed computing is becoming more and more useful. Distributed computing is becoming a more and more important technique for the growing user need. With distributed computing, people can utilize the computing resources together for some big task. Third, the ability of devices and applications. The devices are growing so fast that even the authors make an optimistic prediction, it is still much better nowadays. However, the applications are also taking more and more resources. So the files still need to be deleted even when we have a TB harddisk. Fourth, they think that the people’s rely on computers will be less heavier. But by now they seem to be wrong. For the future of ubiquitous computing, I think the internet is the crucial factor in it. And it will be interesting to see if people will spend less time on computers in the future. -------------------- Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper is written after 9 years and is a survey paper that concludes the past and current streams and provides with future challenges and direction. The past even present research in this field is highly influenced by Weiser’s paper. The three prototype things have already emerged and become very normal. To summarize the work, the authors introduce three streams: natural interfaces, context-aware applications and automated capture and access. The natural interfaces aim to support common forms of human expression and leverage more of our implicit actions in the worlds. Previous efforts have focused on speech input and pen input but with commonly occurring errors. The context-aware ubicomp applications primarily focus on location and identify. The challenge is in creating reusable representations of context, and in creating more complex context from sensor fusion and activity recognition. The automatic capture of live experiences provides flexible and universal access to those experiences later on. As Weiser has talked about, privacy concern is one important issue for personalized systems to capturing events. Besides the three streams, the authors also proposed a new stream – everyday computing, which focused on scaling interaction with respect to time. Besides the challenges mentioned before, the inherent challenges for all streams that mentioned include social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. At last, the author points out the ubiquitous computing system is not meant to be work as independent and single applications for single tasks but a flow-free and integrative system that provides convenience of daily life in a fluent and natural way.
phuongpham 0:25:35 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century: this is a visionary paper, the author have made a vision about the 21st century. The most interesting point of the paper is the invisible part of computers in human's life. However, the paper only focuses on the working part of human's life, how people exchange their assignments, colloborating working environment. As we have known about smart house, the invisible of computers can be seen in day-to-day life rather than only in working life, e.g. smart TV, smart cooker, smart shower. Another interesting point is technology has met researchers' visionary, as we have seen in many papers. It's a pity that the GPS technology was available 4 years after the paper, otherwise, the author can solve the location property and focus more on the other 2 properties. The author also mentioned about security issues in ubiquitous computing, which is an active research area nowaday. There is a point I expected the author have mentioned. After make computers merging into our normal daily activities, what's next? One possibility would be make them more intelligent. The author has visioned many future devices which are popular today, e.g. tablets, smart phones. However, these devices depend largely on non-verbal control. Voice control can become an interesting future. This would lead to many interesting research projects but has to deal with 2 big challenges, i.e. language understanding and voice recognition. Another example of smart devices is the device can react according to their user's affective which we have read in the paper about mixture-initiative. Understanding user's affective is still an open challenge, but we can see that there are new challenges when we can have a real ubiquitous computing system. ***Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: this is a following paper from the first paper. After 9 years, researchers' visions about ubiquitous have changed into fine-grain. Researchers not put too much attention on what the future ubiquitous computing will become but also pay attention on how we make it usable for day-to-day activities. The researchers have confirmed that new devices are smaller and come in different sizes. However, they think the devices are still limited by small screen and textual commands. However, several years later, touch screens have overcome this limit and bring more interesting experience to human. I think the authors have not mentioned in detail the connection between these ubiquitous devices. Given a device can have context knowledge, can capture user's life, can it pass the information to other device and leverage the information? For example if the smart watch detect that the user has a fever, can the user's smart house know that in advance and adjust the house's temperature accordingly as well as a medicine order can be made automatically? This can of intelligent synchronizing and reasoning from devices would be very interesting and helpful for human. About the 2 papers, the authors have shown insights about the technique as well as the trends and the visionaries have become true in some senses. However, a survey papers would not fully address technical challenges from every single visionary. That would be the reason why we have a gap from 15 to 20 years since the ideas were first published until they become complete commercialized products? I am not sure about this.
changsheng liu 0:28:12 10/2/2014
<The Computer for the 21st Century > introduces the concept of ubiquitous computing. The objective of ubiquitous computing is to make computers fade into background, because “the most profound technologies are those that disappear.” This paper is written in 1991, which is more than 20 years ago. However, we can see it correctly predicted something. For example, chips have continued to double every 18 months and personal computer has become popular and cheap. The author mentioned that three technologies needed to support ubiquitous systems: cheap and low power computers, software and network. The function of network is to tie them together. It seems that we already have the first two requirements. We only need a network which can integrate all the components, either software or hardware. I guess with the advance of technology, this is not a problem sooner or later. <Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing> reviews the history of research in ubiquitous computing and try to give directions for future research. In the paper, the author highlighted three research themes and crucial achievements in ubiquitous computing. It also mentioned some challenges. Most previous research in interfaces was in speech and pen input, however, errors still existed in these system. So we still have much space to improve them. Also, we should develop more context aware systems to seamlessly gather and display information for the users. This is critical for ubiquitous computing.
Nick Katsipoulakis 0:34:02 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century : This article presents prophetic ideas about ubiquitous computing by stating its technological requirements and merits. The text starts by enumerating the differences between the general use of computers - during the time of writing of this paper - and real ubiquitous computing (or embodied virtuality). One of the fundamental requirements of ubiquitous computers, according to the author, is the ability to sense location and create machines with different sizes, shapes and functionalities. Also, ubiquity comes by increasing the number of computers in space and automating everyday actions. Unfortunately, the authors mention that technological boundaries need to be overcome before embodied virtuality is feasible (price, power consumption, software, and network). Finally, social implications and improvements, which stem from ubiquitous computing are presented. ////--------------------------END OF FIRST CRITIQUE----------------------------///// Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing : This article investigates history of ubiquitous computing, addresses open challenges and points out the necessity of this field. As far as ubiquitous computing history is concerned, it is divided in three main areas (natural interfaces, context-aware computing, and automated capture). The first of the three deals with finding interaction paths closer to human nature. The second handles the context of a machine and the ways that it can be used efficiently for improving user experience. The last one manages how information is captured, stored, and used in ubiquitous computing. Turning to research challenges, ubiquitous computing takes the form of "everyday computing" as time becomes the dominant dimension. In addition, evaluation is very important in inventing new ways for quantitatively analyzing new systems. Finally, social implications of ubiquitous computers needs to addressed, such as privacy and ownership of data.
Xiaoyu Ge 1:34:08 10/2/2014
Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing The paper mainly introduced history, present implementation and future researches on three interaction themes: Natural interfaces, context-aware applications, automated capture and access. Firstly, the goal of Natural interfaces is to support human forms of communication. Speech and pen input used to be the main focus, however more forms of input such as audio, video, ink and sensor should be handled which make natural data type very useful. And people are still researching on combing different natural data types. Moreover, error handling is a historical problem in recognition-based interaction, and the author introduced solution to minimize errors. Thresholding of confidence measures and historical statics and explicit rule specification can be used to automate error discovery. Toolkits with reusable components for error handling is introduced for error correction. Secondly, content-aware computing used to focus on barcode and tag, but recently it focused on vision-based recognition. The author introduced challenges and solutions of context-aware computing such as incorporate more context information, representing context, ubiquitous access to context sensing and context fusion and the coupling of context and natural interaction. Thirdly, the author introduced challenges of automated capture and access. At last, author introduced a definition, research direction and examples in everyday computing. The three interaction themes seems reasonable aspects to analysis the evolution of ubiquitous computing. The error handling solutions for natural interfaces development are very useful and many companies have developed reusable error handling tool kits in big project to help developer reduce to be more efficient and reduce error rate of recognition based applications. The challenges discovered in this survey still need further development, and as of my experience recognition algorithms do not always provide a high accuracy, and even combining several algorithms error rate is still high. The Computer for the 21st Century In this paper the author introduced a concept that the ubiquitous computer should be seamlessly merge into people`s every day life with cheap, low-power computers with equal convenient display and network. Opposite to virtual reality the computer is embedded and fit into the physical word and eliminate the present of visible electronic device. The author introduced several examples such as Liveboards, Prototype tabs, pad and boards current progress regarding the ubiquitous computer. In order to estimate the possibility of building ubiquitous computer, the author introduced possible technique requirement and introduced devices that can fulfill them. The author introduced challenges by using The Auxiliary storage devices, expected Central-processing unit and Operating System as example. Moreover, the author presented a scenario, which introduces the benefits of the embodied virtual technology. As the author introduced, ubiquitous computer is a very valuable next generation technology trend. iWatch for example is commercialized produce made used of the ubiquitous computer concept. Even though current technology is not sufficient to enough to meet the need of most kind ubiquitous computer device. But the technology development trend implied the ubiquitous computer concept the author introduced in this paper.
zhong zhuang 2:01:30 10/2/2014
This paper is also not about any particular technology, theory or design of human computer interaction. It is another summary type of paper, it summarized the past, present and predicted the future of ubiquitous computing. The term ubiquitous computing didn’t emerge until recent years. Now it is everywhere, we have intelligent watch, intelligent glass, intelligent car, all of the home appliance have a mini computer now, so computer is truly ubiquitous. This also provides hundreds of new research challenges. The paper first summarized three main design components of ubiquitous computing. They are natural interface, context-awareness and automotive information capture and access. Since ubiquitous computing is all out jumping out of the desktop paradigm , the traditional interface which includes keyboard, mouse and monitor no longer serve a good function. We are pushing to natural interfaces such as pen-based, vision-base, audio-based or gesture based interfaces. Also, since ubiquitous computer is interacting with human all the time, it need to be context-aware, so that it can recognize who is using, when and where it is being used, and why the user is making certain movements. Finally, since ubiquitous computer is processing natural inputs such as audio and video, it needs to automate the capture of live experiences and provide flexible and universal access to those experiences later on. The above components of ubiquitous computer are now widely adopted in designs. For example, touch-based devices, gesture based devices and speech based devices are now have very mature products. Geographic context awareness is also widely implemented in these devices. The paper posted some major challenges in these components. For example, in natural interfaces, error will become more common than traditional keyboard-mouse interface, do we try to eliminate these user errors or detect them and ask user to do it again? In context awareness devices, time is rarely aware by the device but it is a very important context. When a family member calls you, the timestamp of last call of the same member conveys lot of information, if it’s five minutes ago, then this call may be an emergency, if it’s five weeks ago, then this call is very likely just to catch up things with you. Then the paper proposed a new term – everyday computing, which results from considering the consequences of scaling ubiquitous computing with respect to time. It is mainly about how to augment users everyday tool with ubiquitous computing. When design these tools, the user considered some major challenges, for example, many users’ daily activities don’t have a clear beginning or ending. The paper sums up with mixing the current components and the new everyday computing challenges. How to synergize among these different themes may be the further topic.
SenhuaChang 3:15:36 10/2/2014
The computer for the 21st century The primary topic discussed in this paper is how computers will evolve in the 21st century in the form of ubiquitous computing. The concept “embodied virtually”, which goes against the notion of virtual reality, means making the computing devices invisible so that people get to focus on the information they convey without being aware of their existence. Many think talked about in this paper has come true nowadays. For example, the pad and tab, the smart phone and tablet PC. Since this paper was written 20 years ago, I’m very impressed with the accurate predication the author made. Even though many underlying technologies which enable today’s products are well studied decades ago, it’s not always easy to say what kind of technology will become popular because human’s behaviors do change with time. As the author mentions, ubiquitous computing can help overcome problem of information overload, and it can also reduce the number of computer addict. This kind of embodied virtually will make individuals more aware of the people on the other ends of their computer links. However, several issues about privacy, security are still needed to pay attention to. Charting Past, Present and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper summarizes people’s effort on ubiquitous computing, and also pointed out challenges and research directions in ubiquitous computing. The works that are analyzed in this paper come from three themes, including natural interfaces, context-aware apps, and the capture and access of our live experiences. It gave out a list of challenges in those directions. The paper pointed out the notion of augmented reality, which was kind of interesting. The author tried to make the point that ubiquitous computing should be computers trying to sense, rather than we try to input, and this is difficult." Some intermediate between cellphone and laptop computers, like ipad, are more and more popular nowadays, which also indicates the trends of ubiquitous computing. I really hope that in the future, computers will be seamlessly integrated into the world and can help people integelliently.
Brandon Jennings 3:45:46 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century This paper is about integrating computer technology into the world in a way that it seems natural. It discusses the notion of technology literally being a part of everyday life. The idea of embedding computer technology in such a way that it is seamless in our society is important. This paper is extremely relevant because many technologies today are woven into the fabric of society. For example, Wi-Fi is now so common, the world is connected to the Internet in ways I was not before. Anyone can walk into almost any building and be connected to the Internet. Chalkboard used to be the standard of classrooms, and then white boards. Now there are smartboards. They look like whiteboards but are essentially computer screens. Even billboards are computerized now and make it easier for advertisers to display their products. I like that this paper goes into detail about the different kinds of technologies that are already prevalent. However I would have like to see more discussion about the research in this field and the direction society is headed in as a result of seamless integration of computers in human lifestyles. This paper did not reveal too much insight into ubiquitous computing but rather explained the technology and its impact to inform those less familiar Charting Past Present and Future This paper is a survey of ubiquitous computing. It explores interaction themes and talks about the importance of this technology. This paper goes much more in depth than the last one as far as research in the field. The chronological history of ubiquitous computing presented in this paper shows a desire to bridge the gap between physical reality and virtual reality. I would have like to see more discussion about the inherent security of risks of such technologies. Where technology is now there is already an abundance of security issues, and to entwine computer technology as described would be disastrous if not designed properly. These two papers talk much about the benefits of these technologies but not so much as the issues. Two of the most important key points of ubiquitous computing presented in this paper I believe are continuously present interfaces and the ability to present information in the background, foreground and everywhere in-between. A continually present interface means less effort on the user’s part to activate and engage the technology. For example, iPhone allows users to access Siri by voice by stating “Hey, Siri.” Before a user would have to press and hold the home button on the phone to get her attention. Most interfaces present information in a way that the designer picks and chooses pertinent information to be in the foreground and less important information in the background. The user does not have much say in what information is presented where. This is important is almost every application so the user can obtain the information they need in an efficient manner.
Andrew Menzies 4:15:07 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century by Mark Weiser This paper, written in 1991, outlines the meaning and benefits of ubiquitous computing. This paradigm calls for putting computers into everyday devices people use, so that using computers becomes part of normal living rather than a focused activity directed towards a specific machine. The idea of ubiquitous computing, in particular the role that tabs and pads play, is similar to the idea of the digital desk that would appear in the paper “Interacting with paper on the DigitalDesk” by Pierre Wellner in 1993. Both involve letting the user organize information by directly manipulating physical objects the way they would move paper documents. The difference is that in ubiquitous computing, the objects themselves are small computers, whereas the digital desk can work with non-electronic objects. However, ubiquitous computing goes beyond the space of the desk. It also involves innovations like personal identification badges, which report on people’s location and preferences, and appliances with computers that can use these preferences. These combine to let machines respond to users’ current or predicted needs with minimal input from the user. The emergence of the Internet of Things, in which myriad appliances connect to the same worldwide network as traditional computers and can interact with their users as above, indicates that Weiser’s predictions about ubiquitous computing are coming true. The paper rightly points out that in addition to providing many benefits, ubiquitous computing comes with a few risks. A device could be designed to capture facts about a person and relay them to an advertiser, government official, or malicious party, allowing targeted action to be taken against the person. The paper claims that encryption techniques will make it possible to reliably keep secrets. However, today, widespread cyberattacks are common, and attackers sometimes manage to find vulnerabilities, such as the Heartbleed bug, in technologies thought to be safe. One concern I have is that ubiquitous computing could make cyberattacks just as dangerous as physical attacks if they let the attacker either capture secret information about a person, or even instruct an appliance to operate in a way such that it damages itself or its user. Thus, although many of the ideas about ubiquitous computing presented in the paper are now realized, keeping these systems secure should be a priority. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing by GREGORY D. ABOWD and ELIZABETH D. MYNATT This work discusses some of the progress made so far in ubiquitous computing, as well as what is lacking. It points out several challenges, including developing natural interfaces, correctly interpreting input, and conducting research on ubiquitous computers. The authors discuss a few of the challenges facing designers and implementers of ubiquitous computers, and suggest some possible solutions. First, implementing a natural interface is difficult because programming languages do not provide a convenient way for storing complex input, like pen drawings or speech, without irreversibly converting it into a simpler form, like a string. The paper suggests that languages be made to treat input through these media as first-class data types. This seems like a valid idea, though there is still the need to decide exactly which details of that input that the data types should store. In the case of pen writing, storing the shapes drawn may not be enough detail; the system should also store the times at which the strokes occurred and perhaps their velocity to avoid losing information that the system might want to know. Another challenge is that of understanding complex input like speech without making errors. The authors pose the idea of letting multiple computers capture the same input and then collaborate over a network to comprehend it. A third challenge is how to represent to users the time an event occurred that the user might be interested in, especially if there are multiple relevant aspects of time (such as the time an event occurred within a video and the time that a segment of that video was edited). The paper lists a few existing technologies that address this issue. I do not believe that all of these solutions offered are absolutely necessary (for example, good code libraries for dealing with various input could substitute for treating the input as a data type, unless maybe the language is specifically intended for dealing with that input in the greatest detail possible) but they are thoughtful and worth considering. The authors point out an additional challenge facing ubiquitous computing—figuring out when it is appropriate for a situation. Since ubiquitous computing by definition is computing that is deeply associated with people’s everyday tasks, testing in the artificial environment created by a lab will not tell us how effective these ubiquitous interfaces are. Also, asking users how they use a system is inaccurate compared to directly observing them. I am not surprised by this finding; I often find it hard to answer self-reflective questions without wondering if my answers are inaccurate, especially since I do not think about many of the details of what I do. It is important to have an idea of what situation an interface will be used in, but also important to make sure the interface actually helps, the paper says. It gives the example of Classroom 2000, where the note-recording aid helped students in several ways but also encouraged bad behavior (taking no notes manually). Also, the paper mentions the security and privacy concerns that come with ubiquitous computing, similarly to “The Computer for the 21st Century” by Mark Weiser. While ubiquitous computers hold the promise of improving our lives, the authors take care to mention that we should be sure they do more good than harm—a valid point.
Mengsi Lou 4:34:32 10/2/2014
Reading critique 2014/10/2 The computer for the 21st Century This paper tells about the ubiquitous computing. A good example of understanding its concept is to distinguish it from multimedia. The multimedia focus on the user’s attention, but the ubiquitous computing trend to fade into background. Many instances can be seen in our daily life that computing device is everywhere. Most computers participate in embodied virtuality will be invisible as well as metaphor. Ubiquitous computers will also come in different sizes that are more suitable for some particular tasks. The author took a experiment of ubiquitous. The ubiquitous computing requires three parts of technology, that is cheap, low-power computers that include equally convenient displays, software for ubiquitous applications and a network that ties them all together. Currently, the different issue is larger displays. As for network for transmission, the rates for both wired and wireless are becoming rapid. However, the problem of transparency linking resists solution. There are still many problem need to solve. ////////////////////////////// Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper tells about the history of ubiquitous and also indicates the future of this field. The past decade is application-driven developing that pushed three themes, that is natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. After reviewing the achievements of there research, the author also proposes a new area everyday computing that focus on scaling interaction with respect to time, and it provides continuous interaction moves. For implementing this goal, the author need to address interruption and resumption of interaction, represent passages of time and provide associative storage models.
zhong zhuang 4:44:53 10/2/2014
This is a very early paper about ubiquitous computing; it is so early that its name doesn’t even have the word ubiquitous computing. The scientists at Xerox PARC built this prototype of ubiquitous computing system which basically includes three components; they are tabs, pads and boards. These devices functions differently according to their scale, the smallest one – tabs, functions as note pads, badges, the medium one – pad, functions as papers and books, the biggest one – boards, functions as white board, display wall. Each of them is a small computer, which has input-output and processor. They are all inter connected by a network. This scheme matches the current trend of technology, now, nearly everything has a microchip in it. Right now as I write this review, I look around, I see my cell phone, my printer and my ipad, they are all small computers. They are all interconnected by my home network. The author did make a correct prediction of the future computing. He also posed lots of challenges, for example, small convenient displays, large displays, cheap and powerful chips, storage devices, operating systems and networks. As we can see today, almost all of these challenges are solved, especially the hardware, right now, I think the main challenge for ubiquitous computing is about software, how can we design the operating system that can be adaptive and ad hoc, and how to design applications that can be universally installed in all these devices. The paper pictures a working day of a lady in the ubiquitous computing world, it is far from being realized, but as of today, most of its components are there, but it is the problem to put them together, again, from my point of view, it is because of the operating system and software.
Yubo Feng 6:11:24 10/2/2014
Both of two passages indicates a new area of human computer interface, everyday computing, especially in the paper "Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing", the authors look backward, evaluate past technology, then come up with a new area which is known these days. In the second paper, the authors try to focus on everyday elements that impact on everyone. Both articles come up with a new idea is that computing could be everywhere rather than in desktop or huge machines, in fact, this idea is a kind of concept that build a new concept: interface not just belongs to computer, but computers devoted to everything.
Christopher Thomas 8:45:15 10/2/2014
2-3 Sentence Summary of: The Computer for the 21st Century – In this piece, Mark Wieser presents a scientifically grounded view of the future of computer technology – ubiquitous computing technology. Technology that follows the user and intelligent devices in everything from the office to the coffee pot. One of the most striking things about this paper, is that if true, we know the future of the computer. The computer will be everywhere and nowhere at the same time. The paper caused me to rethink ubiquity in other things we take for granted. For instance, when we walk into a room today, we assume that in the room there is an electrical outlet, light switches, etc. Electricity is everywhere, yet at the same time, it is nowhere (people don’t think about it). It’s something that’s taken for granted. Similarly, the promise of ubiquitous computing promises the same kind of disappearance of computers. People who walk into rooms in the future will assume the room is intelligent, perhaps even with intelligent wallpaper and able to respond to their requests. One thing I noticed that Mark Wieser seemed to overlook is the merging of technology with biotechnologies and the enhancement of the human body itself and some other technologies we have seen lately. For instance, autonomous vehicles that drive themselves may transform the way people think about vehicles and travel. People will assume their vehicles are intelligent; driving to work will be something primitive people used to do, much the way we think about horse and buggies today. Another vein though is the idea of biological enhancement as seen presently through Google Glasses. Eventually, people may always have computation right in front of them while wearing glasses like Google Glass which constantly provide them information and keep them connected to the world 24/7, the height of immersive computing. Another criticism I have with the paper is that Mr. Wieser discussed how his view was feasible with improvements in computer power and the decreasing costs of chips. One thing I would like to say on this point is that this doesn’t consider the concept of the cloud. It may be that in the future, computation is like electricity service, coming from “the cloud.” This will enable essentially any device to harness essentially limitless computational potential cheaply and efficiently – all those devices need is wireless internet access and they immediately can utilize cloud based compute services. In this way, I can foresee the actual concept of a “computer” disappearing from many people’s homes. People may ultimately just have intelligent displays throughout their house with the actual computation coming through a pay-for-computation model similarly to other utilities like water-bills or electricity bills. A full blown computer may be unnecessary for most people. This will allow people’s data to follow them seamlessly everywhere they go. If this approach was realized, people could access their data in the car, on the bus, etc. on any device. Another critique I have is about privacy issues. Privacy issues will be a big concern with ubiquitous computing however. Even now, constant data breaches and security issues continue to be a thorn in the side of users. Being able to solve these problems and providing a framework where people feel comfortable using cloud-based services is a major obstacle to widespread adoption of these types of platforms however. I believe some people may be resistant to those types of services, concerned about unwarranted government monitoring, etc. Balancing convenience with privacy and the ability to control one’s data in cloud-based ubiquitous infrastructures still remains an open question. 2-3 Sentence Summary of Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing: This paper first presents a grounding of what ubiquitous computing is and is not and discusses some requirements for ubiquitous computing, such as natural interfaces and context-awareness. Current problems such as data awareness, location awareness, context fusion, audio/video, etc. are discussed. I can plainly see a connection with this paper and the paper about multi-modal interfaces, which argued for a symbiosis of input and output modalities as enhancing the overall experience of the user. This paper also argued a similar point, namely that the merging of multiple forms of media that users engage with will add value to the ubiquitous computing environment that users would not otherwise be able to experience. For instance, taking into account location awareness and context fusion allows a ubiquitous computing system to make intelligent decisions that would not otherwise be available to it. One example of this is an intelligent home or office system. In the system is able to determine my location and the context (i.e. coming to work), the system may be able to prepare my workspace for me. The system could initialize my computer to the login page, turn on the heat or A/C in the office, start the coffee pot, etc. These kinds of things could happen seamlessly without the user noticing. Users in the future may simply take for granted that people in the past may have had to come home to a cold house. I am also interested in how ubiquitous computing will shape marketing of products and the dynamics between the agencies of consumers versus producers. In the past, many consumers were at the mercy of stores. If a consumer wanted a product, he or she had no way of knowing whether or not they were getting the best deal on the product. Smartphones have changed that. Now, users in a store can do a quick search for the product and find many retailers in the same area with the product for more or less money. Thus, the power dynamic shifted toward the consumer. In the future, with ubiquitous computing, the power dynamic may again shift back to the producers and marketers. When you go to the store, the store shelves may be intelligent. For instance, using the audio/video capturing technologies that were presently unexplored at the time this paper was written and context fusion vs. location awareness, the shelves may be able to know who is looking at it and offer gradient prices. For instance, Facebook or other information providers who provide “free” services, may sell that information to marketers. When the shelves know who you are and know that you always purchase a special brand of coffee, the shelves may offer you some discounts or change the price of a different brand of coffee, encouraging you to try a different brand, for instance. Thus, consumers may be faced with the problem of differential prices based on past history. Marketing could be taken to a whole new level because of this technology. I think this definitely fits in with the discussion in the paper about “Active Badges.” But once the face recognition becomes so good or with context fusion technologies, even users without active badges may be identified. Thus, the future of computing will definitely move more and more towards ubiquitous computing as the price of chips continues to decrease. Still, I think the lack of standardization between devices to provide a standard cloud based platform remains a large hurdle. Also data-privacy will be a critical factor to adoption of these systems.
Xiyao Yin 9:04:22 10/2/2014
In ‘The Computer for the 21st Century ’, the author mainly describes the future development of computer and provides his own idea about ubiquitous computers. Ubiquitous computing is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear everywhere and anywhere. In contrast to desktop computing, ubiquitous computing can occur using any device, in any location, and in any format. A user interacts with the computer, which can exist in many different forms, including laptop computers, tablets and terminals in everyday objects such as a fridge or a pair of glasses. The underlying technologies to support ubiquitous computing include Internet, advanced middleware, operating system, mobile code, sensors, microprocessors, new I/O and user interfaces, networks, mobile protocols, location and positioning and new materials. In this paper, the author find two issues of crucial importance on ubiquitous computing, location and scale and show that ubiquitous computing may mean the decline of computer addict. In this paper, I found the most impressive thing is that the most profound technologies are those that disappear which is a fundamental consequence not of technology but of human’s numerous experience. When people are so familiar with some technology, they will cease to be aware of it. That is just similar of people’s life. Not only technology, but also some hobbies accompanying with people for so many years will lead to people’s ignorance. Those technology should be things for researchers to try to achieve, also people should also remind those hobbies which they are not aware of. Today’s reading seems a little different because the second paper has such a direct relationship with the former one. In ‘Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing ’, authors mainly discuss about Weiser’s idea about ubiquitous computing and provide their new ideas in three aspects, natural interfaces, context-aware and the capture and access. In these three research themes, I find the most interesting thing is about context-aware. Context awareness is a property of mobile devices that is defined complementarily to location awareness. Whereas location may determine how certain processes in a device operate, context may be applied more flexibly with mobile users, especially with users of smart phones. We also find that simple location-aware appliances are perhaps the first demonstration of linking implicit human activity with computational services that serve to augment general human activity. In conclusion, authors provide background on significant achievement and show that there are still some challenges. Those remaining challenges are what we should focus on during our future research.
Eric Gratta 9:38:12 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century (1991) Mark Weiser I believe we’re reading this paper as a means of inspiring us about the future of computing, and possibly as a creative extension of the multimodal interfaces topic. Mark Weiser, in 1991, was trying to envision a future for computing as ubiquitous and invisible, augmenting the real world. He identified a strong opposition between the concepts of ubiquitous computing and virtual reality, where virtual reality creates a world inside the computer rather than working in the world that exists. To emphasize this opposition, he uses another name for ubiquitous computing: “embodied virtuality.” In the paper were some interesting ideas on how filling our lives with subtle computers (sensors, really) can enhance daily activities without artificial intelligence. The quantity aspect of ubiquitous computing is what makes it powerful, having hundreds of processors and displays interacting. Additionally, the author mentioned that ubiquitous computing will produce nothing fundamentally new, but make everything faster and easier. Many of the technical limitations addressed in the paper are basically gone now, meaning that technology is poised to have ubiquity, and to some extent it is becoming ubiquitous. However, it does seem like we are slow to come up with a better alternative to the desktop metaphor. “Computer window systems are often said to be based on the desktop metaphor -- but who would ever use a desk only nine inches high by 11 inches wide?” People still spend much of their time inside the world of the computer because it offers us the greatest productivity and range of access to information out of any technology available. Technology will seep into daily life rather than overcome our spaces in one technological breakthrough. More specialized devices of specifically tailored size and function are becoming more common, and successful examples were usually created to meet a real need, entering daily life in an organic fashion. A well-known example would be something like a smart thermostat. However, computing of this sort has the potential to solve much more important problems outside the home, car, or office. Many of the ideas in this paper felt like visions a first-world utopia. However, for computing devices used far away from human structures, there still exists today the technical limitation of wireless network access. This means that any device must be dependent on being accompanied by a smartphone and operating within service areas, or can only communicate information when brought back to a WiFi network. ------------------------------------------------- Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing (2000) Gregory D. Abowd, Elizabeth D. Mynatt This is a survey paper about ubiquitous computing research. The authors state that one of their motivations for this research exploration is that “ubicomp,” a nickname they use, has more potential than distributed computing. They also believe that part of the vision of ubicomp is to augment reality without overwhelming it, much like the “embodied virtuality” from Mark Weiser’s paper (he is cited for his apparently seminal paper that “pushed the limits” of ubicomp a decade earlier). To cover the body of research on ubicomp, they identified three common interaction-related themes that appeared: natural interfaces, context-aware applications, automated capture and access, propose new theme “everyday computing.” Phrased another way, these interaction themes have been goals that research in ubicomp has pushed toward. Natural interfaces are able to capture multimodal input, both active and passive, especially the most common forms of human expression. Context-aware applications adapt their behavior based on collected data about the current physical and computational environment. “Capture” refers to the ability to document live experiences but also provide full access to those experiences in the future. Naturally, they also explored the weaknesses that seemed prevalent in research in all three of these areas. The main contribution of this survey paper is its synthesis of its observations in the identification of a new, more all-encompassing research area for ubicomp, which the authors call “everyday computing.” Ubicomp technologies that function for everyday computing should promote the informal and unstructured activities that occur continuously, 24/7, and do so in an unobtrusive manner that respects the social as well as physical and computational environment. Although interruption should be avoided for the user, the systems should expect to be interrupted, since the actions being monitored in the continuous input stream may spontaneously pause and resume. In the same light, this means that another action may pick up where the last one left off, or there may be multiple simultaneous actions to keep track of. To accomplish this flexibility, the system must be time-sensitive, and should have models that do not assume a clear organization of data. Most interesting to me about this paper was its wise focus on the social implications of ubicomp. I felt that the issues the authors identified in ubicomp were very useful. They stated that the technologies must actually address a human need, and must be evaluated in the context of that need. Also, they identified a need for robust security measures and heightened attention to privacy by way of allowing users to understand how they are being monitored in the virtual world.
yeq1 9:49:40 10/2/2014
Yechen Qiao Review for 10/2/2014 The Computer for the 21st Century In this paper, the author Mark Weiser of Xerox described his vision of how computers will be like, and how they will be used in the 21st century. He believes that instead of having to operate the (personal) computers on desktop, through a traditional input device, the computers would become ubiquitous. The computers will be of various sizes, of various feels, supports various inputs, and vanish into the background just like any everyday object. How would this be achieved? The author explains that this is just like electric motors: computers can drive the use of the objects. They may be offered no identity of its own, as the cost of the production is much cheaper than the greater parts. The computers will be everywhere, providing assistances to everyday actions, communicate with each other to support interactions greater than each individual objects. Yet the authors are also concerned what this may mean for people living in the next century. Would they be able to maintain and attain privacy? Would we rather trade privacy for utility? Would the interest of computer hacking wane as computers continues to improve? The vision truly predicts what is happening today: smart vehicles, smart appliances, smartcards, smartphones, tablets, laptops, smart TV, wireless routers, wireless accessories, and many other devices are now flooding the market in developed countries today. As a result, new research areas are defined, new markets opportunities are opened, and new social interactions starts to appear. For example, my research topic, user centric privacy, is only starting to become hot as ubiquitous computing starts to take shape. Like the author, I don’t think these devices are the end. Instead, it is a mean for an end, and I believe the trend will continue as we move onto the rest of the century. (These two papers are quite related. I really think it’s better to write as a synthesis than as two separate reviews. But oh well…) Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing In this paper, the authors defined a new research area from that of the old. They looked at the past work published in ubicomp, a very influential interaction conference, and used them to identify what are the new problems in the area. The new area, which they call everyday computing, is unique as it is consisted of many separate unexplored problems: no clear start and end, interruptions, multiple activities at the same time, etc. The author politely (implicitly) calls for synergy of different areas of then current ubicomp to solve these new challenges. I think this paper is quite useful, not in the way the previous paper is, but it is useful because many things said in this paper is relevant to my current research. For example, the current project my advisor, FXPAL, and I are working on is about how to come up with a privacy solution for context aware system. The authors so brilliantly addressed several key issues: we can’t use task-centric evaluation, and have to instead fill out a bunch of paperwork to IRB for conducting formal usability studies, and one of the primary problem we have to solve is to find out the user’s needs (to what respect would users want their information private, and this allows us to find balance between utility and privacy). It would be really interesting to see how HCI researchers had resolved some similar challenges in the past (as in after this paper is published.) For example: what are some of the evaluation techniques, how to find out and capture user’s requirements, and how to use these information to produce a satisfactory design.
Yingjie Tang 10:23:01 10/2/2014
Starting with the famous sentence, “the most profound technologies are those that disappear”, “The Computer for the 21st Century” was published in 1991 and it correctly forecast the development in the 21st century about the interfaces of computers. The development way of the 21st’s computer will take into account the human world and allows the computers themselves to be ubiquitous and vanish into the background which human can not even notice them. The means that disappearance is a consequence of human psychology rather than technology improvement, which means invisibility doesn’t represent vanish of device, and does represent vanish of complex steps to achieve the goal on using the device.There are 3 types of prototypes the author suggested as the components of embodied virtuality, tab, pad, and board, which were characterized by its display size. And there well correspond with the development of the computers today or even more in the extreme. We not only have pads and tabs, but we also have the smartphones which push the ubiquitous computing into a extreme and better demonstrate the “vanishing” of the computers. As we may neglect, smartphone take a great user computer interaction in today’s life, we face time with a smartphone sometimes will neglect the computing of the small CPU inside it. The author categorized the components by its size of screen. However, in my point of view, they can be categorized by its ownership, personal and infrastructural devices. Personal hand-held devices including laptops and net-books had succeed greatly. Recently, with iPhone’s lead, smart phone market was grown significantly. Including iPad, a note-sized tablet device which Apple has recently released, the personal-owned devices are improved fast and seemed to be enough to realize the environment which M. Weiser mentioned.—————————————————————————————————— “Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing” tells us there are three interaction schemes that resulted from the proliferation of ubiquitous computing, namely, natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. The authors put forward a new area of research called everyday computing. There are many issues in ubiquitous computing such as privacy, security, visibility, and control but there doesn’t seem to be a one that stands out worthy of focus, but certainly the three main issues that need to be addressed are physical space, people, and time.With the pioneering work of PARC researchers, we see firsthand the importance of incorporating technology into our lives without being intrusive. When designing an input mechanism, for instance, like mouse or pen, we need to focus on implicit user input to minimize distraction from user tasks. There should be more research done in technology that recognizes handwriting, that is, in order to eliminate or reduce errors. Another effort that must be made is to know or discover when errors occur. With the advance of ubiquitous computing, we have to sacrifice some thing like the privacy. There are a lot of leaking for the privacy these days with the ubiquitous of cloud computing, some people lost there privacy by losing their private photos which had been uploaded into the cloud. Moreover, the social network is a way that we leak our privacy. With the wei-blogs, we might know many new things and we can share interesting things with our friends. However, in the mean time, we have post our location and actions onto the internet.
Vivek Punjabi 11:16:49 10/2/2014
The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper is more of an article where the author has tried to compile all the ideas just before the start of 21st century. He first writes about how the computers and machines of that time have emerged and been so ubiquitous that humans aren't aware of it being in their surroundings. He has several examples of active badge, wired and wireless networks, computer scratchpads, etc. and explains why have they been so common that people do not tend to notice it even if their surroundings are full of it. He then predicts the future of the computers and their usage on a huge scale and says that it will become ubiquitous again. The paper seems too outdated to compare it to the current world scenario. So, I couldn't find much of a relation to our future research works. But, it is somewhat inspirational in the sense of creating a vision for the next century and helping others to think in a particular direction.. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This article is an extension to the above paper written after about a decade. It cites the above article and uses some of its points and elaborate on them. This article provides a brief history of ubiquitous computing through three basic interaction theme - natural interfaces, context-aware computing and automated capture and access for live experiences. The article explains each of these concepts along with the challenges faced in each of them. It then talks about everyday computing with its features, required for addressing and also provides some great research directions and challenges that the researchers can work on. It also provides a couple of case studies that addresses few of these challenges, thus providing strong motivation and inspiration. The article provides many compelling research directions and challenges which inspires to create innovations in the field of ubiquitous computing. Some of the quotes in the article such as 'availibility of interaction 24by7' and 'possibility of killer existence' goes clearly with the context provides a sense of motivation. I liked the three interaction themes which I believe defines the basis of human computer interaction. The context is relative to our HCI class and the projects that we will do in the near future.