Affordance and Conceptual Models

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Vineet Raghu 16:37:47 9/4/2015

The Task Centered Design Process The task centered design process refers to a way of constructing an interface which focuses on coming up with representative tasks that will encapsulate every possible goal a user may have for a particular interface. Next, a design is created first as a rough sketch, and then a prototype, and then a working model. At even the rough sketch stage, the design is tested on the original representative tasks using real users if available. By running these texts, the design can be updated and retested as needed, until a final system is developed. Overall, this design process is a very logical way of developing an interface. One nice result of this process is that it eliminates features that have no particular use for users, since only features that help to solve a representative task can be included in the design. The other most important takeaway I found from this article was the final section on having a design that is apt to change, since this is something that can be easily forgotten during the course of a system construction project. A criticism that I have for this article is from the section that tells readers to plagiarize elements of the interface from pre-existing projects. While I do believe that this is a necessary portion of a project, I think that designers should first create a design using their own thoughts and then incorporate ideas from other sources. Starting off a project by picking and choosing elements from others will greatly limit innovation and creativity in the design process. Also, I’m interested to know how frequently a theoretical analysis of an interface is done in a corporate setup. It seems as though that mock-ups are created and analyses are done through tests instead of through model calculations, but I’m not entirely sure about this. Brainstorming This article describes the usefulness of brainstorming as an idea generating process for any sort of organization, and it also provides tips to foster a successful brainstorming session. A very crucial takeaway from this article is the importance of the environment in fostering an idea generating session. The authors suggest things like the boss should not be in attendance, do not immediately criticize negative ideas, and create visual representations of the ideas all make the environment more fun and open to new ideas. This can really be applied to any sort of creative situation, so trying to mix structure with creativity, in general may not be a sound idea. Another interesting result from this paper is the experiment to determine the best type of brainstorming warm-up homework assignment. They found that for a brainstorming session to develop new toy technologies, that visiting a toy store was significantly better than listening to a lecture about the topic or doing nothing at all. The other nice aspect of this article is that it can be useful for anyone from any field that has a group to collaborate with. For HCI in particular, this can be a useful tool to come up with ideas to start a design project for a particular problem that users are facing. An interface can then be developed by branching off of a brainstorming session such as this.

Matthew Barren 10:20:23 9/8/2015

Summary: In the Psychology of Everyday Things, Donald Norman examines the features that compose many typical devices, and how the designers of those devices succeed or fail at providing an understandable interface. Throughout the chapter, Norman evaluates devices based on the visibility of their functions, how the controls of those functions map to a natural order, and the feedback the device provides to the user. Donald Norman makes a poignant decision to examine the networked company telephone as the non-example of a device that includes ambiguous mapping and has no visibility to many key features. Norman points out the frustration users have with performing phone tasks that provide limited to no feedback about whether the result matched with the desired goal. In considering this arbitrary functionality, the ceiling lamp and fan is another example of a device lacking in visibility, mapping, and feedback. Unlike the telephone, the ceiling lamp and fan has two cords providing access to its two key components. The issue is the cords are arbitrary, and they are not labeled with any distinguishing markers. Some of these fixtures will have one cord that is longer than the other, but if the user does not regularly pull on the strings, they are likely to not remember which performs what function. Additionally, the function of one of the cords serves as a secondary light switch. If the switch is turned on, the lamp and fan may operate or they may not based on how the cords were previously pulled. In considering the fan, Norman provides many ways of changing the interface to better suit natural tendencies in device use. If cords are intended to be the switch for these devices, then why not eliminate the lamp cord. The lamp could be controlled solely by the light switch and the fan by the cord. Since the intensity of the fan can be changed by pulling the cord but the user must distinguish based on speed the current fan setting, the user would benefit from having a dial rather than a cord to more directly control the fan. This would bring an additive dimension to the fan, and the user would get feedback from turning the dial and setting it to a particular value of intensity. Extending this paper to modern smartphones and computers, most of these devices permit the user to tailor the interface for a personalized natural mapping. In the past, designers typically created a one-size fits all interface that hopefully was a natural mapping for the majority of individuals. A truly natural mapping should mean that it is natural for the individual user, and thus this can vary widely based on preference. iPhones for example, bridge this personal mapping dilemma; users can move applications and deposit them into folders of their choosing. In the future, it would be wise for devices to continue to allow customization of visibility and mapping of features to the user for a more individualized and better suited experience. Summary - Jef Raskin - The Humane Interface - Chapter 2: Cognetic and the Locus of Attention In chapter two of Jef Raskin’s book, he describes two complementary components of the working human mind, cognitive conscious and cognitive unconscious. Throughout this chapter he describes the characteristics of these two settings of consciousness in regards to locus of attention and automaticity, and additionally, he discusses ways that designers can create interfaces in an appropriate manner in regards to the human brain. Individual’s conscious and unconscious cognition is split between the tasks that require one’s locus of attention or can be completed in an automatic fashion. As Raskin describes both forms of task completion have their advantages and are pertinent given the task at hand. For example, automatic actions are used all the time in word processing. As I type this sentence, only now do I realize that my fingers are depressing particular keys and ending each sentence with the appropriate form of punctuation. If users did not develop automaticity with tasks such as word processing, their locus of attention would be removed from the thoughts and ideas they are expressing to the actions of making the letters, words, and formatting appear on the screen. In instances of highly consequential tasks, these habitual actions can have dreadful results. Raskin, uses the example of stimuli failing to interrupt pilots locus of attention and computer users deleting pertinent files by not truly considering the warning that they commonly click through. In order to avoid this, designers of interfaces must consider ways to block the habitual actions, create an effective interrupting stimuli, or allow the machine to intercede avoiding sometimes irreversible consequences. In the instance of an extreme risk to safety for a pilot, the interface may need to invoke an automated message as a stimulus to attract the locus of attention of the pilot. For the other example, Raskin correctly points out that other efforts, such as typing a set of words or describing the effort, would most likely result in the user eventually adopting habitual actions that remove the consideration of deleting the file or not. Instead, the program could store a temporary and an accessible “ghost” file that is located either as a compressed document or onto a cloud webspace in the event that the user has to retrieve the document in the future. Finally, it is interesting that Raskin would suggest the use of website and applications to revert to the previously open file. In a short term circumstance, such as an hour, this could be helpful so the user would not need to consciously focus on the items they need to access. Over a longer period of time, reverting to previously opened files could interfere with the user’s goals by distracting their conscious thought process. For example, if the user wanted to search a kayak on amazon and the page immediately opened to music downloads on amazon, the user’s initial goal may be altered because of this new stimulus. Rather, it may be best for a user to have a platform where it either starts from the original and known start, or allow the user to specify their intentions before initial access. For example, imagine the length of time to boot up a computer. In some instances, the user may have forgotten their intentions by the time the startup screens have finished cycling through and the desktop attained a state where tasks can be performed. In this case, it would be beneficial for a user to do some preliminary selection of the applications they would like to use prior to the conclusion of the boot up. When the user finally accesses the desktop, these programs can begin opening, which would serve as a stimuli to bring the individual’s locus of attention back to their original focus.

Mingda Zhang 15:37:42 9/8/2015

Both readings for 9/9 class are talking about interface design principles, however they do emphasize on different perspectives. For "The Psychopathology of Everyday Things", the author proposes lots of everyday examples (mostly horrible design examples) to support his argument. From his opinion, everyday things deserve to be understandable, intuitive, and easy to use without redundant instructions. He summarizes his frustrating experience working with anti-humane design and proposes some suggestions (guidelines) for improvements. In fact, many of modern designs do follow his rules, such as creating suitable mapping, making things visible and providing immediate feedbacks. He also use psychological theory to emphasize the importance of building consistent conceptual models in design. From my own experience, I strongly agree with his accurate observation since great designs should be straightforward and intuitive, especially for everyday things. I used to own a smart wristband featured with sleeping quality monitor. However, the battery only last like 20 hours and I had to charge it every night - not a chance to be on my wrist. Therefore I did not see how the functionality to be meaningful. For the "Cognetics and Locus of Attention", the author focuses more on human nature from a cognitive psychologist's viewpoints. After elucidating several definitions about cognitive engineering (cognetics), cognitive conscious and unconscious, the author introduces the experimental results about locus of attention, and its significance in interface design. For example, all repeated tasks would inevitably ended up as habits without the involvement of consciousness. In this case, a widely spread bad design may cause more damages because users would get used to such settings although they are horrible. Even worse, this habit formation process is extremely difficult to reverse. However, this process can be helpful because habits are performed automatically, which allow human to execute simultaneous tasks. Carefully designed procedures can benefit much from users habits. On the other hand, limited by the brain function, people could only consciously focus on one thing at a time although multiple tasks can be performed automatically unconsciously. Therefore it requires more elegant design for users to balance between achieving high efficiency (few distractions) and multitasking on different jobs. These psychological phenomenon has been thoroughly studied and can be used to facilitate interface design.

Ameya Daphalapurkar 15:58:37 9/8/2015

The paper Art of Innovation focuses on the idea of brainstorming as skill and as art that influences a wide variety of solutions to problems which might be bit hard to grab on. The author also states the experiences from IDEO and how do they relate and exemplify the various situations in brainstormers and how all of it links and help derive completely unexpected unusual solutions. For a good and healthy brainstorm, values, energy and the essence of innovation is what drives it to the peak of utilization. Although, an important factor to keep in mind is that a brain storm is to be led by a team and the boss of the team. It’s not about establishing an ascending or descending order and talking in the brainstormer with that predefined order, nor is it about the time of the day at which the brainstorm takes place. A hour long or a half more is enough time for a discussion full of ideas and active participation. A sense of enthusiasm can easily boost a team confidence and help them find a solution that is unusual and not expected. Paper also showers upon the secrets of better brainstorming. A great way is to initiate a brain storm with an important and elaborated but simple problem statement, which helps to keep the people in touch with the main topic of the discussion. It’s all about the focus on customer needs and not about the organizational priority which will make the discussion narrow minded with the prospect of only thinking for the company profits. Author also talks about the rules at IDEO and different sign boards which help them be focused. Another secret is to number the ideas basically by setting a target of specific number of ideas that need to be presented as a sort of the goal. Also taking a leap backwards so as to not wander away from the main topic is important. A good way is to start on a light note and put on energy as the steep flow of discussion goes on. Transitions are important. Being low-tech isn’t being naïve but is being smart as it helps to recapture to the ideas back if we are lost. A warm up is healthy if the group is infrequently active or unrelated to each other. Show and tell works the best to discuss the brainstorms as proved by the IDEO observation. Lastly, sketching, mapping, drawing is the easiest and a good way to get better at the brainstorm. The other facts in the paper talk about the things that can ruin a brainstorm. For example, a boss should never start as it sets an agenda for the meeting and eventually restricts the flow of discussion thus limiting the useful and innovative ideas. Hiring only experts for a discussion isn’t wise and nor is keeping an order of discussion. Onsite work is more important and just noting down everything is a bad practice. Author thus completely elaborates the concepts of brainstorm.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The paper “Task Centered Design process” focus basically on the process of implementing an interacting software system and the various steps involved since its inception. The process’s attributes must certainly revolve around the user’s demands and expectations that he or she thinks that the system should accomplish. The preliminary step is to figure out which kind of users are going to use the system and for what purposes will they need it. Understanding the background of the users and the knowledge they pursue is an important goal while being in the initial steps. Inheriting the small features from preexisting software also helps. Tasks that are important and recommended depending on the function the system does are important be implemented. Task should be capable enough to cover the whole functionality the system proposes to fulfill. Plagiarizing the existing interfaces and functionalities is a crucial step. This is not straight forward duplication of the data but is to learn the theoretic and functional uses. System should be faded away with things that are extra and not required; the programming shouldn’t be started yet. Developing a prototype is the next step, it shouldn’t necessarily be a model, it can also be a sketch and still be representative and conceptually descriptive. Testing the interface and then iterating it to develop and correcting it is a process to follow. Using the UIMS or Object oriented programming to develop the design and then tracking it still after deploying is an important task. Updates and upgrades are a sure thing to follow and thus the changing needs should always be met as the trend changes.

Manali Shimpi 16:06:14 9/8/2015

Art of Innovation: The paper focuses on the brainstorming. It talks about its importance and ways to do it better.It also discusses about the improper ways that kill a brainstormer.After discussing about what an effective brainstorming is, the author goes on to explaining the right ways to do the brainstorming better. First is to start with well articulated statement of the problem to avoid wandering aimlessly. Second is have some basic rules for the session to get more and more ideas without having a debate. Third is number each idea so that it's easy to go back to an idea and cone back.Also number can be used as a motivation. Fourth is to take a transition from a steep part from the ideation curve. It is important to get into next power curve .Fifth is to write down the ideas to make use of the spatial memory. Sixth is to do a warm up before the actual brainstorming. The author explains the reasons why it is important to get a qualitative results of brainstorming. Seventh is to use physical ways like building models or bodystorming to represent ideas.At the end the author talks about the wrong ways that affect the quality of brainstorming. In which he says that there should not be boundaries set up by a boss. The participation of members should be random and not turn by turn.The member in the brainstorming process should be anyone who can bring in good ideas and should not be limited to some expert in a particular field. The process Also the brainstorming should not have the necessity of doing it off site. The ideas could be as wild as anyone can think of and should not be limited. Participants should not write down everything because this would lead to loss of focus.Thus brainstorming is an invigorating experience to take a project to a new level. ----------------------------------------------------------- Task Centered Design process: The paper explains the Task centered Design process I.e the tasks which are required to be completed while developing a system. Author elaborates each step in the task centered design process.It is important to have an understanding of the users of the system to merge into the user's existing world for system to be successful. To achieve this ,there should be close personal contact between the designers of the system and the users.Further author explains that the designer should be able to recognise that tasks that the system will be used to accomplish which are described by the users. The tasks selected should be able to cover the functionality of the system.Designers should be able to find the existing interfaces with which the users are comfortable and build ideas from those interfaces. It is important to know what users are would prefer than building our own new interface.A rough description of the design should be made in paper to check if any new feature added to the system is supported by some representative task.It is important to think about the streingths and weaknesses of the design before building it. To do this, various methods are discussed in the paper. For example counting keystrokes and mental operations which is also called GOMS analysis.Author then explains the importance of creating a prototype. A prototype can be created using various systems like HyperCard and User Interface Management System. Next step is to test the system with users because there will be few problems which will only appear after testing with users. After finding the problems , it is important to balance the cost of correction against the severity of each problem. Some problems may even require re-examination. This process is called iteration. The iteration should be stopped when specific udability objectives are met. A design should be build while keeping in mind that the design may be required to be changed in future. Thus , author suggests to make use of UIMS or object oriented programming for this purpose. Designer should be put in contact with users in various ways. The design of the system may change in future. Both tasks and users change. Designer should stay updated with these changes.

Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati 22:41:30 9/8/2015

Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a term used for group discussions trying to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering list of ideas. It can be considered as an exercise for brain muscles. Moreover, participants can learn different ways of approaching a problem in brainstormer. It can be considered as a friendly environment for participants to shine and show their skills. The following are the ways to improve brainstorming: 1. The start point in a brainstormer is the discussion topic. Having a description of the problem with the right level of specificity directs group discussion. A good topic statement should focus on customer need instead of organizational goals. 2. Rules should be defined for brainstormer. These are better to be printed beforehand or reminded during discussion. “preventing debating members’ ideas “ is an example of these rules. 3. 3. It is better to number, since brings us two advantages, motivating participants and jumping back and forth while still keeping track of discussion. 4. In power curve, momentum starts slowly, then continues intensely and finally starts to plateau. It is important to jump from plateau by asking new questions to directing the discussion to another high power point. 5. During brainstorming no meeting noting is needed. Writing ideas for group on a medium visible to everyone is sufficient for keeping track of the discussion. 6. Warming up participants’ brains is needed n cases in which members aren’t familiar with each other or are new with brainstorming. Fast-paced word game or content-related Home works are good exercises. 7. Make brainstormers as more physical as you can. Present ideas in visual formats by any tool you are capable of working with. Besides all the ways improving brainstormers, they are some actions kills them. If bosses give speech at the beginning of sessions, they unintentionally define boundaries for participants’ ideas. The sessions should be dynamic. Considering turn for members to express their ideas kills the sprit of throwing wild ideas. We need variety of ideas, thus people from different fields are needed. Having experts from specific fields related to the topic kills the innovation. Ding discussions off-site just cause in lack of concentration on the topic. Having some fun and silly stuff makes the members more productive and energetic. Writing all stuff just distracts minds from throwing innovative ideas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Task-centered design: This writing introduces the task-centered design with the following steps: 1. Two sources of users and tasks feed the interface design in this step. User-defined tasks help designers to adapt systems to users’ world and work. User preferences and expectations such as background knowledge, confidence, interest in learning is also useful in design. 2. Traditionally a general specification is used for system design. In this step, the best initial design is a system based on users’ tasks. These tasks should be simple but informative enough to cover users’ need and can be improved to cover all details. 3. Based on collected tasks, now we can predict the kind of system we need design for. Looking at other similar systems gives us idea in both low and high level design parts. 4. Before starting programming, a rough description of the system should be prepared and a task-based group discussion should lead the design to a more complete version. 5. Before implementation, the cost of construction should be estimated. Two are used, GOMS to estimate mental operations needed for task and cognitive walkthrough for spotting users’ mistakes. 6. A paper mock-up or a prototype prepared by tools such as UIMS is prepared in this step. By showing mock-up to users, more information can be collected for system improvement. 7. Many system errors and problems can be distinguished during testing the system by users. 8. An iterative process should be done for system improvement, checking test result, estimating cost caused by changes and applying changes. This process should be iterated by considering the probable side-effects on other parts till some pre-defined usability objections have been met. 9. The implemented system in this phase should be adaptable and compatible to future changes. Any hardcoding should be avoided and a module-oriented coding should be done. 10. For preparing data for system improvement for future versions, designers should notice users’ feedbacks on using the system. 11. By having changes in tasks, users and hardware, need for redesigning the interface arises.

Chi Zhang 23:03:47 9/8/2015

Critiques on "The Psychology of Everyday Things" by Chi Zhang. As intuitively illustrated in the name of this chapter, the psychology of everything is discussed here as an interesting view towards some HCI designs in our everyday life. If we pay more detailed attention into our daily life, it seems quite straightforward to see that we always put up with many clumsy and stupid designs, which might waste us hours to figure out how to use them, like the door that traps people, the confusing washers and dryers. Many designs can be much easily simplified if we overthrow some daily illusions, and take into consideration some significant principles of designs. Visibility, is of importance to those correct parts and they must convey the correct messages. There’s a concept that refers to how things are perceived and the actual property of things that determines how things could be possibly used. This concept is affordance, like the chair affords sitting. This concept provides strong clues to operations. Also there are principles of understandability and usability, the principles of mapping and feedback. All those concepts are crucial in the design process of everyday object. We need to be inspired by certain object and especially these underlying principles of this object. That’s the right way of making smart designs, otherwise our users would be flawed by those stupid products. ------------------------------------------------------ Critiques on "Cognetics and the Locus of attention" by Chi Zhang. Inside this chapter, the author talks about the important concepts of cognetics and locus of attention. There are limits for human consciousness, and humans cannot stop forming habits. These are the important underlying principles of some everyday behaviors, of which consideration could be taken to improve the efficiency of multi-tasking. It is of key importance that the HCI designers understand how people forming their habits. This would increase the performance of their products. Also the author illustrates the idea of the singularity of the locus of attention. It means sometime people would be absorbed in a task. With people being more absorbed into their task, it normally requires more time to take the locus of attention out of this person. This is also a very good point of view that could inspire our HCI designers. The better this product starts appealing to users, the longer time people would spend using it and more profits would be gained.

Samanvoy Panati 23:48:20 9/8/2015

Critique 1: The psychology of everyday things This chapter deals with the psychology of how people interact with things. It describes about the importance of a good design in using a product. It also describes about the fundamental principles in designing a product – visibility and good conceptual model. Now-a-days there are vast developments in technology. This chapter is important because it helps the developer by pointing out the principles to design an easily usable product and it helps the user to interpret the instructions in a right way. The author gives many real life examples for helping the reader to understand the concept easily. He says that the objects that are well designed are easy to interpret and understand. One of the most important design principles is visibility. The examples of swinging glass doors and the telephone explain the difficulties arising from poor design of visibility. Then the example of the controls in car explains the advantages of visibility. The user requires the right things to be visible – to indicate how he should interact with the object. Visibility indicates the mapping between intended actions and actual operations. The second fundamental principle in designing a product is providing a good conceptual model. A good conceptual model allows the user to predict the effects of his actions. The example of refrigerator helps the reader to understand the difficulties in using a product provided with a false conceptual model. The conceptual models are part of an important concept of design called mental models. The visible part of the device is called system image. When it is coherent or inappropriate then the user cannot easily use the device. If there is a lack of visibility combined with a poor conceptual model, then the result would be a disaster. The device and its controls should be designed with natural mapping. Natural mapping means, taking into account, physical analogies and cultural standards into the relationship between the controls and their movements. The concept of additive and substitutive dimensions is explained. Good design is explained by the example of magnetic diskette. Finally, the author says that it is necessary that the relationships among the user’s intentions, the required actions, and the results must be sensible, non-arbitrary and meaningful. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Critique 2: The humane interface This chapter describes about the cognitive behavior of human mind. It dives into the concepts of cognitive consciousness, cognitive unconsciousness, and formation of habits and the locus of attention. This chapter is important because the user’s behavior is an important aspect in designing an interface. The designer must consider various behaviors of users to different inputs and then come to a conclusion. The author says that a person can think of many things at a time but only one of them will be in his conscious and the other things are done by his unconscious. Understanding these two concepts is essential for designing efficient human-machine interfaces. The author gives different examples, of the things happening at the moment, for the user to understand these concepts. He mentions that a stimulus can bring a mental construct from cognitive unconscious to cognitive conscious. The differences between these two concepts are summarized effectively. The locus of attention is defined as a feature or an object in the physical world or an idea about which we are actively thinking at the moment. There can be only one locus of attention at a point. The author gives many examples to describe this concept. If a person is subjected to same event again and again, then it becomes a habit of the person. Then he can do the same function without using his conscious. Nail biting is given as an example for this. So, in the same way, persistence use of an interface for a long time can cause the user to develop habits that cannot be avoided. These habits become automatic. The author also describes the concept of inheritance, doing two tasks simultaneously and which are not automatic degrades the performance. Your focus on a task is directly proportional to the difficulty in changing your locus of attention. After dealing with the interruption of a task, then the interface must return to the same state before interruption. In the future, Interface testing may be done by making use of the direct measures of brain activity. Finally, systems should be designed so that the users concentrate on their jobs. Interfaces must be designed as though the users will be so focused on their tasks that they may not respond to any outside stimuli.

Zihao Zhao 0:56:08 9/9/2015

The Psychopathology of Everyday Things is an article which emphasize the importance of user-friendliness in object design. Well designed objects are easy to interpret and understand because the clues on how to use them are obvious while poor designed objects will make users confused when using them. He listed many examples, such as the inconvenient window door and the elegant projector where caused him in trouble when he was doing a lecture because the projector only uses one button to control the slides to move forward or back. He also concluded 2 problems of new phone systems: one is that they fail to relate the new functions to that people already know about, another is the lack o visibility of the OS. And he compared the phone system and the automobile system to figure out what kind of design will be useful. I think the point that designers should relate the new functions to that people already know is quite important. Take the smartphone for example, although touch and gestures is very hot and nearly every smartphone adopted the touch screen. But the physical button has always been there, like iPhone. Although Iphone has redefined smartphone, it adopted the home button to be physical, maybe just because people are familiar with physical button and physical button will also give them a stable control. Gestures is not as stable as physical button control just because the sensors will receive some more extra noise than physical button when it works although gesture control will give users a sense of magic. The article Cognetics and the Locus of Attention mainly tells us that the properties of human learning and performance can be directly applied to the foundations of any interface design, the interface design mainly refers to the human-machine interface. The author writes that the ergonomics should be applied to interface design, the example he give to it is the simple objects like chairs, table, keyboards and so on. He says that these were well designed for human users according to the ergonomics. Recently, the iPhone 6 was published with a thin edge in order to let the users have a easy control on it. Since our hands are not big enough to control the whole screen when the screen become larger and larger, the reduce on the width of the edge is necessary. This design well confirmed the theory in the paper. Apple products are always known for its user-friendliness, mac air is a kind of laptop which is extremely light and it let users to be able to put it in a school bag and to go everywhere without a feel of tiring.

Vineet Raghu 1:04:08 9/9/2015

Cognetics and the Locus of Attention This article surveys different psychological phenomenon that can impact a user’s experience when interacting with an interface. Some of these phenomenon include singular attention, automaticity and simultaneous tasks, habit formation, and locus of attention. These behaviors can have a huge impact on interface design. In addition, the chapter gave a definition of the cognitive conscious and unconscious which are somewhat self-explanatory, in that the cognitive conscious refers to the object that the conscious mind is giving attention to at the particular moment. I thought that this article was highly logical in their treatment of how these psychological behaviors impact interface success. For example, the habitual response to yes or no questions is something that I have experienced very often with interfaces, even in the direction opposite to that presented in the book. I have seen interfaces where “no” is the default option, so I will habitually press the enter button and am forced to repeat the task countless times until I finally take conscious control to change my option to “yes I am sure.” One criticism I had for this article is that it seemed somewhat heavy in psychological terms and did not provide enough particularly useful examples for design goals. The example cited above as well as a small example about the command button in Mac computers were the only design related examples given. I felt that another few examples would have made applying these ideas to interface design an easier task. Psychology of Everyday Things This chapter gave a very entertaining and insightful description of how the interface design principles of conceptual models and visibility are crucial in the interaction between humans and everyday objects. Here a conceptual model refers to a user’s belief as to how a particular object really works, and visibility refers to how clearly the design itself conveys its function to a user and how clearly the result of an action done by the user can be observed. I thought that this article did an excellent job of conveying these design principles and how disastrous results can be if they are not followed through a ton of example designs. Particularly, I thought that the refrigerator model was ideal in demonstrating the importance of a conceptual model and how a faulty conceptual model can lead to a complete misunderstanding of an interface. In addition, the telephone example provided a very clear impact of visibility on a user’s experience as the lack of clear connections between buttons and functions made it almost impossible to perform any meaningful tasks apart from a simple phone call. The only real drawback of this chapter of the book was it was at times outdated with its examples. Specifically the telephone example referred to what was a landline phone with minimal design success. With today’s smartphones the interface design issues specific to phones are significantly different, though the principles remain the same with visibility and conceptual modeling.

Ankita Mohapatra 1:05:36 9/9/2015

Reading Critique on "Cognetics and the Locus of Attention": This chapter of “The Humane Interface” begins with a convincing depiction of the concept of cognetics by making an analogy to ergonomics, the science of design to accommodate human physical faculties. Cognetics, then, takes the same approachThe author argues that developing good interfaces requires understanding of human nature, especially in how we react to stimuli, how our locus of attention shifts due to stimuli, and how we form habits. He also argues that a great software interface will exploit these natures in order to provide a seamless experience for people to use. I think it is quite apt that the user brought up the issue of human psychology in work about developing interfaces for human-computer interaction. Many times, when people develop interfaces, there is a tendency to create them with the intent that it was helpful for the software developers. But we forget that the software is designed for the general population, and software is meant to help them pursue some field of work with greater ease. By forgetting that software has this purpose, interfaces also suffer from a lack of intuitiveness. Due to long-standing unspoken standards of human interfaces to computers (keyboard layout, mice, windowed graphics, etc.), humans have an expectation of how an interface is supposed to function, namely, almost exactly how other software works. Even if the new interface claims to save users time, change is hard to adapt to, and this article explains why through the field of psychology. . He claims that empirical observations can be made about human cognitive processes when evaluating interfaces, and he terms the practice of applying these observations to design enhancements as “cognetics”. Within this idea of cognetics, Raskin attempted to elaborate on more specific concepts, particularly the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious mind, the locus of attention, and the natural formation of habits I felt that the argument for distinguishing the conscious from the unconscious was belabored, this might be due to the fact that this was still not fully accepted while it was written. The use of examples that played on the reader’s own conscious mind was a clever way of getting across these concepts. An important point brought up by the author is that users can readjust their locus of attention more quickly when the system stores and reloads the state that the user left off at. Some interesting points were made about habit formation. That the presence of multiple options to perform the same action can forces the movement of the locus of attention (from performing an action to choosing the method to perform the action) and thus prevents habit formation. The author assumes that interfaces should strive to exploit habit formation (i.e. human automation) when it improves workflow. I assume there are circumstances where it’s important for the user to choose the method or configuration for the computer to use – some junction in the execution of a program where the user should specifically not develop a habit and direct the system. But perhaps in those circumstances a better alternative exists such that the system will know a priori what the user wants. The paper did not state a clear opinion on how often to “afford” habituation. Another interesting point about habit formation was that confirmation prompts (the ones that double check whether a user wanted to perform an action) are rendered useless by “habituation” or the formation of a habit. ======================================================================================================== Reading Critique on "The Psychology of Everyday Things ": This chapter outlines some of the basic terminology that can be applied to design in any context by describing informal case studies and real people’s experiences. It exposes what goes behind good design for products, and explains the reasoning using real-life products that have good and poor design. The most important concepts introduced are affordances (actions made possible by the relation between a user of an object and that object’s capabilities), mental models (users’ internal and personalized understanding of how a system functions), feedback, visibility, and mapping (visual analogies between the function of a system and the action(s) necessary to perform the function. This paper also introduced the limitations in developing a successful design. The chapter is very compelling and the anecdotes especially are very entertaining. The author gets to the core of a subject that affects everyone on a daily basis; interaction with all man-made things. Some of what is written could be viewed as common sense, but his categorization of the various properties of design creates a useful framework to describe physical (and probably non-physical) interfaces within. The author makes many small references to psychological concepts, which seem to be the evidence backing his categorizations. I agree with his implication for the question – “ Are labels necessarily bad ” that if there is an equivalent and intuitive non-verbal, then a label should not be used. But I don’t think that the use of a label implies a bad design. In fact, he even approaches contradiction when he speaks about the old, more user-friendly telephone systems that had buttons explicitly labeled “HOLD.” For a device with very little user input real estate like the telephone, labels might be one of the most effective methods of signifying functionality. Also surprising was the fact that the use of printed icons on objects was not discussed or at least mentioned along with labels. Are they better than labels? Or are they also signs of poor design? The photographs of cars and phones both showed icons but they were never mentioned.

Priyanka Walke 1:26:10 9/9/2015

Reading Critique on The Human Interface This chapter gives us an intuitive picture about Human Cognitive learning as it sheds light on the various ways by which we can design interfaces which can be more accurately related to the working of human mind. It gives detailed explanations about Ergonomics, Cognitive consciousness and unconsciousness, Locus of attention, Formation of habits, Tasks, Absorption and most importantly, the way in which they affect our behaviour. Here the author explains the working of the human mind by segregating it into 2 half’s namely the cognitive conscious and the cognitive unconscious. He also explains how these 2 half’s are related to each other and in what terms. The first term of inter-relation is the Locus of Attention, which defines our ability to make a conscious effort of working on only 1 task at a time. The next term is a habit, which deals with a couple of tasks that occur parallel to each either unconsciously or we are used to doing them so often as a response to something that they tend to become a habit. However, such habits often make the designing activity of the interface more tedious as it ends up invalidating the safety features of the interface and creating new interfaces for serving the purpose. Next feature is about Resumption of the Interrupted Task performed by the CAT system, is quite an important feature as it relates to the human thinking process of performing tasks. The paper puts forth some important boundaries for the interface design. It states that the interface design should be within the limits defined by Ergonomics as well as our cognitive ability of performing tasks. This is explained by stating that the human body has a single mind hence it relates to singular thinking at a time. Also, Repetition, in terms of tasks leads to habits, which in turn is very difficult to change as we perform them unconsciously irrespective of the fact of them being healthy or unhealthy for us. The paper is quite easy to understand as it makes a lot of things much simpler and explains the human psychology flawlessly by relating its experiments with the day-to-day human tasks. It can be concluded by stating that the conscious tasks consume more time as it requires the locus of attention unlikely to that of the unconscious tasks hence making them much faster than the conscious one’s. the inter-relation between conscious and the unconscious tasks depends upon the activities stimulating them and thus forms habits which we tend to perform unconsciously thereby affecting the human cognitive mind and hence the interface design. Reading critique on The Psychology of Everyday Things. The author states that every activity that we perform in our daily life is with the help of some mechanical or electronic devices thereby reducing our ability to perform them on our own. Designing those devices is definitely a time consuming and involves numerous design efforts. He also points out the flaws in those designs and ways to overcome those design flaws. The author states that the use of an object can be identified just by having a glance at it. It’s the design of that object that provides us a hint about its purpose. Hence, any good design has to have the design features to prompt the clues about its purpose. The paper begins with the author’s frustrations about the use of some gadgets to perform our daily tasks and his views about how we could perform the tasks without those gadgets. The key terms used to explain are Visibility, Affordances, Conceptual Model and Natural Mapping. The author states that a glance at the object forms a conceptual model of it in the human mind which in his terms is an image created by the human mind that instigates the actions for using the device. It’s the Visibility factor that gets triggered first to create the image which in turn leads to the further activities. Moving forward, the paper mentions about the author’s frustration about human dependency of gadgets and also the flaws in their design that made their use much more tedious. This can be supported by the example of the latest telephone with numerous features which ends up confusing the humans about its use. The author repetitively mentions about the design flaws and the ways they could be tackled. He states that a good design should always prove to be useful in terms of use, need and also its convenience. He also states that one cannot always excel in using every device and it is also not feasible to master every device by reading its features and manuals as definitely points out the important features however, it may point out every minute detail of the device. It can be concluded that this chapter definitely points out a variety of design flaws within a wide range and hence it contributes towards some great feature improvements which prove to be highly user friendly.

Lei Zhao 1:29:26 9/9/2015

The Psychology of Everyday Things. This is the first chapter of the book, so its main purpose is to illustrate the main problem of user interface design by providing lots of failure design examples in everyday life. For example, the door that confused the author's friend and the only button on the projector. I think the key idea of this chapter is that the designer should employ some psycology method to design the interface, instead of only paying the attention on aesthetic. This reminds me the time when I first transfer from Windows computers to Mac computers. Although Mac is a very successful design since it gains a lot of popularities nowadays, personally speaking I do not regard its interface design is reasonable. I remembered when I first use the Mac computer, the touch pad does not have buttons, and the mouse only has one button. At first, it made me confused on how to perform a right click using this device. After I get used to this device, when I encounter the original mouse or touchpad on Windows computers, I begin to feel uncomfortable. So another problem arises, even a design is not reasonable in nature, after sometime, it may become reasonable. I think one point that is not discussed in this chapter is that the adaptability of human to a strange design also plays a significant role. ============================================= Cognetics and the Locus of Attention. THis article talks about the consciousness and unconsciousness in human machine interface design. It states that a successful design should utilize the unconscious part of human mind as much as possible. This is because the main purpose of an interface is only a tool to get the core functionality of a product. For instance, let us take the Mac computer again as an example, the dozens of gestures that are supported by the touchpad are only the means to operate the software in this machine. If the gestures are not intuitive, the user may need a lot of time to memorize all the gestures, it will definitely degrade the usability of the whole system. For short, when designing an interface, give the user more opportunity to utilize the conscious part of human mind on the core tasks instead of the interface.

Xinyue Huang 1:30:50 9/9/2015

1.The Psychopathology of Everyday Things. The chapter introduces two fundamental concepts of human interface design, the first one is to provide a good conceptual model and the second one is to make things visible. The chapter presents a lot of examples. The chapter first tells the door story and illustrates the principles of visibility. The visible parts must convey the correct message. The design of supporting pillars and vertical plate are all natural designs and natural designs are essential for human interface design. The chapter states a concept: the psychology of everyday things. It includes the affordances which refer to the perceived and actual properties of the things; the mappings between controls and functions of one thing; and feedback which is information sent back to the user about actions being done. The above three dimensions are essential and helpful for the design of conceptual model. The conceptual model has to be right, otherwise causing difficulty for user use. The chapter presents the example of refrigerator to state the necessity of correct conceptual model. Conceptual models are part of an important concept in design: mental models. In the last part of chapter, it also introduces the paradox of technology, which means that the same technology that simplifies life by providing more functions also complicates life by making the device harder to learn and harder to use. But this will not influence good design because good design will make complexity manageable. 2.Cognetics and the Locus of Attention. This paper introduces cognetics and the locus of attention. Cognetics is the cognitive engineering of human mental limits. The paper first introduced some basic concepts about human performance factors. Ergonomics studies what people can do and what people cannot do from the physical perspective. Similar as ergonomics which studies the limits of human frame, cognetics studies from the engineering scope of mental abilities. The more important concepts in cognetics are cognitive conscious and cognitive unconscious. Unconscious mental processes are those of which you are not aware at the time they occur. Normally there are two processes, one from cognitive conscious from cognitive unconscious and the other from cognitive unconscious to cognitive unconscious. Related with cognitive conscious, the paper also introduced the locus of attention which is a feature or an object in the physical world about which you are thinking actively. Locus of attention has one attribute that you can only concentrate on at most one entity at one time. Based on this attribute, all but at most one of the tasks are automatic when executing multiple simultaneous tasks. Automation can be achieved by performing a task repeatedly, and repetition forms a habit. Considering these, the paper also gave some suggestions about the design of human interface, such as taking advantages of human habits and allow users to develop habits which smooth the flow of work. The paper also mentions different kinds of resumptions of interrupted work for different kinds of interfaces of which the strategy is to return to the previous work users were working on.

Shijia Liu 3:24:59 9/9/2015

Section 1( The Psychology of Everyday Things): The psychology of everyday things including the importance of visibility, appropriate clues, and feedback of one's actions, it's talking about the psychology of how people interact with things. The psychopathology of everyday things that the technology of the objects around us every day should simplify our life, make life easier and more enjoyable, increased benefits as well. There are several important point mentioned in this article: 1. Visibility: Visibility should be clear, naturally indicate the function without destroying the aesthetics, or natural signals, naturally interpreted, without any need to be conscious of them. The visibility can also indicate how the user is to interact with the device. 2. Affordances: Affordance is means that perceived and actual properties of the thing, especially how the thing could possibly be used. There is one point is: the user know what to do just by looking: no picture, label or instruction is required, the affordance will be taken advantages. 3.20000 everyday things: That means there are too many things around our routine life. We couldn't pay too much time on how to learn it, So it is very necessary that the everyday things should be very clear and people could use it without any consideration. 4.Conceptual Models: Conceptual models is more likely that fantasy I think. When people see a object, people could connect the function and how it works in their mind . People from conceptual models through experience, training and instruction, if it is incomplete or contradictory, there will be trouble. 5.Visible: our target is make things visible, the possible functions are visible, for each corresponds with a control, if the user forgets the functions, the controls severs as reminder. The good relationship between the placement of control and what it does makes it easy to find the appropriate control for a task. 6. Mapping: Mapping should be very easily to remember. It is between the controls and the movements and the results, it also need visible and natual for people.One function, one control, the relationship between controls and actions should be apparent to the user. When things are visible, they tend to be easier than when they are not.

Jesse Davis 5:10:06 9/9/2015

The Psychology of Everyday Things This section of the book explains in detail as to why the design of literally everything that we use on a day to day basis is extremely important and how we can learn from said designs. Doctor Norman explains that even the most intelligent people can have big issues with simple tools that we use day-to-day and the fault should be given to the design of the tool rather than to the person trying to use it. He then goes on to give specific of examples, comparing his fridge and car; where a fridge is seen as being less complex than a car, a car can be more easily operated because of ease of design. This excerpt is very well written and the flow of the reading was smooth, however it’s a lot of information to process and I think the sections could be reorganized into smaller chunks/sections so that it would be easier for the reader to process. Cognetics and Locus of Attention This excerpt goes excellent with the previous one. The previous reading covered a lot of the features that are glazed over by this author’s explanation of ergonomics. And this author then decides to go into detail to explain another important part of design, cognetics, which is comparable to the end user’s mental capability/capacity. In order to do this the author explains the difference between cognitive conscious and unconsciousness by giving very helpful examples (in particular the last letter of first name). The author then redefines “focus of attention” to “locus of attention” (locus meaning the location or place therefore conveying a clearer phrase). In the locus of attention section he describes various causes, downfalls, and ways to utilize the locus of attention in a very organized manner that’s easy for the reader to comprehend, with good examples for each section.

Adriano Maron 7:37:26 9/9/2015

The Human Interface:  This chapter discuss the limitations on human focus, our ability to learn and become familiar with certain tasks, and how they must be taken into account when designing easy to use computer interfaces. The author makes an interesting comparison between the well know physical limitations of the human body and the still unknown limitations of the human mind. The former had been used for designing physical objects that can be easily used by humans; the latter, which is not well understood and can be very different for different people, can not be fully used for designing virtual interfaces. Despite providing interesting insights about our brain's ability, is very shallow and does not provide any specific techniques or guidelines on how to design interfaces that cope with our limitations.  ============== The Psicology of Everyday Things: In this Chapter, the author provides an analysis of the main characteristics that make everyday products easy or hard to use. The contribution of this chapter is the specification of the properties and concepts that are essential for creating intuitive products. Visibility and affordance (how to use and what it is supposed to do, respectively) through the mapping principle, which establishes the relationship between the controls and their operation and the expected results. Another important insight of this Chapter arises from the Conceptual Models, which influences how the user interprets the expected functionality of a product, and therefore, bias its judgment on how to operate the controls provided. One of the most successful examples of application of this principles is the creation of the Desktop graphical interface a few decades ago. By using concepts familiar to users (trash can, windows, and other physical items) to interact with a computer, boring and hard to use terminals were substituted by more intuitive concepts. 

Darshan Balakrishna Shetty 7:56:22 9/9/2015

Reading Critique: The Psychology of Everyday Things The psychology of everyday things talks about the affordance and the conceptual model of everyday things we use. The author discusses about the design of the everyday things like as basic as the scissor to cycle to complicated electronic equipments like washing machine, telephone and car. What makes a design success and what makes it unsuccessful. Why is it important to think about the affordance, i.e., the primary properties of the things that determine on how to use the things. The designer has to design things based on the human psychology keeping in mind that there are enough hints in the design so that the user can grasp it without any instruction manual. The success of an item depends on the affordance and good conceptual model, i.e., by seeing the design of the item th euser can picture a model in his mind and simulate and predict the output. The closer the conceptual model and the actual model of the item the more success the item is as it is easier for the user to get hold of the operation and predict the outcome. The paper also provides sufficient examples on how a good conceptual model and the visible outcome can help in the success of a design. It is not easy to get a design click at the first go, but by keeping in mind not only the functionality but also the conceptual model and how logical the operation and the outcome is whether the user can predict the outcome, how is the design and affordance, can it provide the indirect hints on the operation of the item without using any instruction manual. How close the number of keys and the number of functions are in the item if its closer to one to one mapping it's simple and easier for the user to follow. For example in current time, the if you consider the design of the watch, how logical is the knob at edge of the watch to set the time that was easier for the user to understand, just rotate the knob and you can see the hands of the watch moving so that you set the time hence the user logically can figure out that the knob is used for setting up the watch the same design is carry forwarded by the apple watch where they use the similar knob at the side of the watch which is used to change the view of the watch zoom in zoom out, the idea remains the same as old watch change the setting of watch. Reading Critique: The Human Interfaces The paper is a very good read to understand the cognitive conscious and unconscious mind of humans. How humans can do multiple work at a time and still on observing closely we can do only 1 cognitive conscious job and rest of them are on auto-pilot. The paper provides enough examples to make the reader understand on what he means by cognitive conscious and unconscious state of mind. Why is it important to know these states and how the design of a tool or application is successful if we know these cognitive states and design accordingly. What is the role of habit and the design of the application. Its important to know how the human mind works in order to design interfaces. The paper also discusses about the locus of attention and how the magicians used this to play there tricks in front of the audience. The same funda/concept can be used while designing the interface in order to mask the background jobs and give the user a pleasant experience. The main 3 things the paper sheds light is the cognitive conscious and unconscious state of mind in humans and the locus of attention in human. Humans have a single locus of attention and the rest of the jobs are running auto pilot mode and how as a interface designer we can exploit these.

Anuradha Kulkarni 8:06:15 9/9/2015

The Humane Interface –Cognetics and the Locus of Attention This chapter deals with understanding the human efficiency in a suitable working environment and the engineering scope of the human mental abilities i.e. the ergonomics and cognitive ability in humans. It unravels the properties of cognitive consciousness and cognitive unconsciousness with help of models and examples. The chapter gives a deeper understanding of human focus on a single point consciously and differentiates the terms like locus, focus and perception. Further we understand the human habits and its effect on interface. It also discusses about carrying out parallel activities, single focus which allows only thinking about one thing at a time, effects and possible origins of the single locus of attention, interruption to a task and then returning to the interrupted task. The interpretation of the chapter is that thorough understanding of the human ability to carry out stuff consciously or unconsciously would help us to develop good interfaces. We should aim at developing interfaces that prevent habits from causing a problem to the user. Users are so accustomed to automating a task i.e. make it a habit. This has a bad implication on the interface design because you can lose out some important stuff. Designer came up with an idea of including confirmation before deleting a file but that confirmation pop up can also lead to a habit to few users. Thus if a file is never to be deleted, that file should be made impossible for the user to delete. Interfaces should be designed such that the user gets engrossed into the task preventing change in user’s the locus of attention. Interface should be designed such that any interruption in the activity would lead the user to go back to that point. This would prevent the user from starting fresh. I found the chapter to be quite interesting and useful. We do need to keep in mind about how the humans react while developing an interface. However, it is rather difficult to unravel a human mind completely cause not all humans think alike or behave alike. But the common traits should be analysed and taken into account in order to develop a user friendly interface. The Psychopathology of Everyday Things This chapter talks about the psychology of how people interact with things. With help of examples author elucidates how people react to poorly designed objects. A device is very easy to use when there is visibility to few tasks or action where the control and display harness natural mapping. The author explains about visibility and affordance with good practical examples. It gives a brief understanding about the conceptual model of the device. Visibility deals with the interaction of the user with the device. Affordance refers to the actual properties of the thing i.e. it provides clues to operation of things. The two things that account to principles of designing are good conceptual model and visibility. Designing well is not an easy task as it has to satiate the manufacturer needs, Store need and the purchaser need. A good product satisfies all the needs and pays attention to the needs of the user. The author has explained the concepts really well. There is flow and ease in the reading as the examples used are practical examples making it easier to understand. The author concludes by saying that the technology tries to bring an ease in the life and provide benefits to the lifestyle. But it also offers difficulty and frustration due to the complexities in the technology. The author also states that the poor design should not be the victim of the paradox of technology. So if the number of functions goes beyond the number of controls then the design becomes complex. Although the technology provides more functions to simplify life it also make it difficult for the user to understand how to use it. I am in par with the author’s thought that a good design is one that makes the users life simple and the functions are easy to use.

Zinan Zhang 8:37:34 9/9/2015

section1: The paper mainly talks about the principles of designing according to his observation and thinking of the daily life. The author gives many examples and analysis them from the perspective of designing, so that he can introduce the principles of the designing to the readers vividly. I have learned a lot from this paper. A good design is not a complex one with many different kinds of usage, but an easily used one. When the users use the designed product, they can easily get to know how to use it clearly. That is the basic and the most important for a good design. What’s more? The designer should not only care about how powerful his product is, but also should concentrate on whether it is handy for the users. They should modify their design with the need of the users. That is really necessary. Finally, reduce the frustration of the users’ can be displayed in different way and is also important. An example of myself can also illustrate, when withdraw cash in front of the ATM, I always confuse that how to insert my debit card. I do not which side of the card is the right. But fortunately, the card is rectangular and there are only two possible ways to insert the card (the entrance only allow the shorter side in). I can successfully insert my card with no more than two tries. section2: The paper mainly talks about the designing from the aspect of human cognitive. From conscious to unconscious, there are so many details that a designer should think about when making a good design. It is true that conscious and unconscious are two important elements in designing interface. There are so many icons on our computer desktop and there are so many information on the website that we are browsing. We definitely cannot pay attention to all of them. In addition, the paper state that human cannot concentrate on two things at one time. There must be one of them more important than the other one, or them two are competing for human’s attention. Therefore, I think, a good design must offer what the user need clearly. I mean, the interface can guide the user to do next work to some extent, other than just display all the function on the screen and waiting for the user’s next step. The interface will be extremely developed if this goal can be accomplished.

Sudeepthi Manukonda 8:42:25 9/9/2015

The Psychology of Everyday Things is a Book written by Donald Norman. Donald Nornam, being a cognitive scientist and an engineer, interestingly puts forth the everyday encounters with a lot of things. It happens with everyone that they tend to blame themselves for not being able to use any product or machine properly. They laugh at themselves a door that is to be pushed is pulled or vice versa. Donald Norman, states that this faults are not actually the faults on the users side but is due to the lack of interactive design by the designer. There are some rules that the user has been accustomed to for many years and ineffective design approaches towards designing everyday things makes it difficult for the user to interpret the correct usage. Sometimes the problem lies with not being able to use all the features of the product because they are not visible. According to the author, Vision plays a vital role in helping the user use the things effectively. Using horizontal bars indicates that the door is to be pushed while vertical bars indicate that the door is to be pulled. Buttons on the machines or things should be visible and it is even better if there are multiple buttons for different actions. The main goal of the designer should be that he must produce a design that can be easily understood by the user who is using the product for the first time. This paper is highly relevant to the current scenario because this happened to almost everyone, almost everyday and sometimes the same incident happened multiple times. The author also talks about ergonomics, which is the ability to design a comfort product, after performing a lot of study on the interactions of such products with humans. The example that the author provides are intuitive and can relate to everyone. The solutions he provides are also easy to incorporate. The author also talks about the behavioural psychology which depicts how each individual would react to each situation. This can be based on his previous experiences with similar things or an incident that happened just before the encounter with the thing in question. He introduces user centred design, which says that, the needs of the user should be catered should be the first priority to the user but not the any other aspect of appealing to the people. He also explains seven stages in the user centered design in great details. Overall this book has given insight into something which otherwise would have gone unnoticed but the users, otherwise. It tells us that human behaviour, even at the slightest level, is interesting and can be studied to increase the user satisfaction and standard of living. The second book, “The Human Interface”, also deals with the similar concept. It talks about ergonomics and cognitive science. The author, Jef Raskin a Human Interface expert. Ergonomics is the science of producing the most effectively used product. By most effectively used product, it means that the comfort level should be high, most of the operations should be utilised, and there should be minimum confusion. Cognitive Science on the other hand talk about human mind and how it process to understand and behave in every situation it encounters. This books talk not about the everyday things but more specifically about the computer and the users issues with the computers. It is not designers in this case but programmers. He explains using large number of examples how the the currents interfaces are not up to the marks in the reaching the level of happiness that the user is entitled to. Planning is an important key in maintaining the level of user satisfaction. Programmers need to carefully plan before coding anything. They need to carefully understand human needs and system accordingly. They should figure out why there are failures on the user end, how can the system be more interactive and useful. Most of the times users are not completely aware about how to use the software and this can also result in failures. Both of the books are highly relevant and they aim at improving human interaction with the systems and improve the interface between them. They, without knowing, increase human happiness. Human behaviour plays a vital role in the designing and programming processes. An atomic analysis of these behaviours help the designers and programmers to better cater to human needs.