Design Process and Support Tools

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Reading Critiques

Matthew Barren 9:18:53 10/4/2015

Summary of Where do Web Sites Come from: The authors of this paper designed a system that allows for history review of projects through the design phase of a project. In doing so, they provided users with full and partial visualization of the past and authoring as the user needs. Key component that to the system the authors developed and researched is the opportunity for passive collection of information through video footage. The system will be even more beneficial when audio collection is enabled. The benefits of this system allows for users to share information with individuals throughout the design process. This enables users who are not present for past pieces of the design process to be updated. Additionally, users can be selective about the pieces of informations that they are reviewing through filtering features. One of the best features of the system is multiple featuring types. This feature allows for a selectivity of how to review the information in the past. The only danger of this feature is if the affordable of the user does not map to the output of the filter. In this event, the timeline review could leave out key information. Authoring is another great feature of this rational visualization system. Giving the user the opportunity to augment the past allows the individuals to create a past that maps better to the user's understanding. In addition, user can explicitly import thumbnails into the system in the event that pieces of the history were not captured. Another feature that could be added is a reflection piece where a user could speak in the camera to give rational and then provide next steps that are currently on the team's mind. Summary of Perfect Brainstorming: The authors of perfect brainstorming discuss the best methods to facilitate brainstorming sessions. Throughout the paper, the author emphasizes a openness of rules to provide a fertile ground for ideas to be hatched. Perfect brainstorming establishes a set of rules to best facilitate idea creation. They focus on an openness of discussion, removal of hierarchy, and lose specificity. An excellent strategy to open lines of communication and comfort is to provide startup activities that allow teams to relax around each other. The importance in this can be found in all the ideas that are never suggested because an individual was afraid to openly discuss an idea. When there is a sense of judgement in idea creation, team members will be afraid to suggest ideas that they may perceive as having low fidelity. The ideas that are held back may be the ideas that will elevate the discussion to the next level. Another important factor in a high quality brainstorming session is the facilitator. The facilitator must develop the art of guiding and not guiding the group at the appropriate moments. A leader should facilitate diving into an idea and branching on the idea when appropriate. Additionally, if a branch stagnates the facilitator must prune the branch and jump the group in a new direction. Just as important is the facilitator understanding that there interaction in the brainstorming group must be unscene at times. This person needs to know when there input aids new creation versus turning in a direction that cuts out potential ideas.

Zihao Zhao 13:30:59 10/5/2015

The first article Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History recommends us a overview of a process that’s very important in interface design. It mainly tells us to figure out to fulfill the users’ needs and to make a rough design for it and then repeatedly change it to meet users needs. There is a paragraph tells us to create a prototype or a mock-up. The author suggest that in this stage, designers should make a simple design rather than a concrete product. And he mentioned some systems which can help us to make a prototype of our interface, such as HyperCard, Dan Bricklin’s Demo Package. We can save a lot of work in making a prototype rather than to produce the entire interface. Moreover, Interface techniques tested in a stand-alone prototyping system may be difficult to duplicate in the production User Interface Management System. The second article The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of ideas tells us the important of brainstorm, how to perform a better brainstorming, the brainstorming effects and some ways to destroy a brainstorm. Brainstorming is not as easy as a check box, and we can get a lot of information in a brainstorming. So, there are 7 tips for us to make a better brainstorming, 1, we should make our focus narrow by make the questions well-honed. 2, we should not focus on the debates and critiques of the ideas from others and just encourage wild ideas and that will make the brainstorming more informative. 3, Number the ideas so that can motivate the participants to gauge the fluency of a brainstorm. 4 In a good brainstorming, we should follow a series of good curves and to build and jump in correct time. 5, To make the thoughts visible by some graphs so that group members will be more clear about the discussion. 6, Before starting a brainstorm we should do warm up first. 7, use physical elements to make the discussion clear.

Vineet Raghu 21:14:48 10/5/2015

The Perfect Brainstorm This article describes the usefulness of brainstorming as an idea generating process for any sort of organization, and it also provides tips to foster a successful brainstorming session. A very crucial takeaway from this article is the importance of the environment in fostering an idea generating session. The authors suggest things like the boss should not be in attendance, do not immediately criticize negative ideas, and create visual representations of the ideas all make the environment more fun and open to new ideas. This can really be applied to any sort of creative situation, so trying to mix structure with creativity, in general may not be a sound idea. Another interesting result from this paper is the experiment to determine the best type of brainstorming warm-up homework assignment. They found that for a brainstorming session to develop new toy technologies, that visiting a toy store was significantly better than listening to a lecture about the topic or doing nothing at all. The other nice aspect of this article is that it can be useful for anyone from any field that has a group to collaborate with. For HCI in particular, this can be a useful tool to come up with ideas to start a design project for a particular problem that users are facing. An interface can then be developed by branching off of a brainstorming session such as this. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Where do Websites Come From? The authors in this paper describe a research prototype of a web design version history application that actively monitors the changes made to a SMART Board during the design process of a web interface. The application uses real world post it notes as input into the virtual system. This system presents the user with a detailed timeline of thumbnails of past designs, with the ability to filter these thumbnails by various criteria. Another unique feature of this interface is the ability to have collapsible branched histories. This allow users to redo actions that were undone in the past and vice versa. One other useful contribution from this application is the annotated synopsis view that summarizes all of the design changes made to the project based upon a pre defined filter or by explicit user bookmarks of versions. An interesting output from this paper is the user studies done with real web designers and the general usages of this application. It appeared that the version history was useful for both reflection, and for accountability purposes. In addition, the designers found that the function “view all” was harmful for an application such as this, since the user being flooded with every single change made to the design was way too much overload for the designers. Overall, this prototype provided valuable takeaways for designers in general. First off, is the idea that too much detail can ruin the productivity of a user interface. Secondly, is that even long studied areas can be improved upon such as the undo format of Microsoft Word. A final takeaway is that typical usage of an application may only involve the largest functionality of the application as was demonstrated by the user studies in this case.

Manali Shimpi 0:14:40 10/6/2015

Art of Innovation: The paper focuses on the brainstorming. It talks about its importance and ways to do it better. It also discusses about the improper ways that kill a brainstormer.After discussing about what an effective brainstorming is, the author goes on to explaining the right ways to do the brainstorming better. First is to start with well-articulated statement of the problem to avoid wandering aimlessly. Second is have some basic rules for the session to get more and more ideas without having a debate. Third is number each idea so that it's easy to go back to an idea and cone back. Also number can be used as a motivation. Fourth is to take a transition from a steep part from the ideation curve. It is important to get into next power curve .Fifth is to write down the ideas to make use of the spatial memory. Sixth is to do a warm up before the actual brainstorming. The author explains the reasons why it is important to get a qualitative results of brainstorming. Seventh is to use physical ways like building models or body storming to represent ideas. At the end the author talks about the wrong ways that affect the quality of brainstorming. In which he says that there should not be boundaries set up by a boss. The participation of members should be random and not turn by turn. The member in the brainstorming process should be anyone who can bring in good ideas and should not be limited to some expert in a particular field. The process also the brainstorming should not have the necessity of doing it off site. The ideas could be as wild as anyone can think of and should not be limited. Participants should not write down everything because this would lead to loss of focus. Thus brainstorming is an invigorating experience to take a project to a new level.—Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: The paper presents informal history capture and retrieval mechanism that support activities for collaborative, early-stage information design. The three mechanisms for accessing design history are main timeline, a local timeline and synopsis view. The history system is designed around a set of scenarios which are reaching an unproductive point and heading off in new direction from earlier point, writing summery of design session, finding rationale behind decision, creating a set of action items from design session. Paper discusses about the history of capture and access methods of systems like AudioNotebook, Dynomite , Coral etc. In timeline visualization, author talks about filtering thumbnail. These filters are divided into activity filters and inferred filters. A synopsis can be created by using bookmarks or from filtered history view.

Ameya Daphalapurkar 0:31:32 10/6/2015

Paper titled ‘Where do websites come from? Capturing and Interacting with Design History’ talks about an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism which encompasses creation, revision, reflection for the information design. For accessing the design history there are three mechanisms that the paper presents, which include main timeline, local timeline and synopsis view. Visually navigable sets of design constitute the main timeline; a history with actions relating to object are shown in local timeline and a post design review is displayed in synopsis view. There have been many field and design studies conducted before building the history sytem. Time and Synopsis Visualization form the other important parts. Paper explains the history usage scenarios by examples of scenarios like reaching a dead end and, writing a session summary, finding rationale. The implementation involves data structure that holds command objects for adding notes, removing note, and adding links etc Timeline usability indicated the enthusiasm for history of participants. Future work for the research lies in collaborating informal audio capture technologies into history system, using timeline as access interface etc. ******* The paper ‘The Perfect Brainstorm’ focuses on the idea of brainstorming as skill and as art that influences a wide variety of solutions to problems which might be bit hard to grab on. The author also states the experiences from IDEO and how do they relate and exemplify the various situations in brainstormers and how all of it links and help derive completely unexpected unusual solutions. For a good and healthy brainstorm, values, energy and the essence of innovation is what drives it to the peak of utilization. Although, an important factor to keep in mind is that a brain storm is to be led by a team and the boss of the team. It’s not about establishing an ascending or descending order and talking in the brainstormer with that predefined order, nor is it about the time of the day at which the brainstorm takes place. An hour long or a half more is enough time for a discussion full of ideas and active participation. A sense of enthusiasm can easily boost a team confidence and help them find a solution that is unusual and not expected. Paper also showers upon the secrets of better brainstorming. A great way is to initiate a brain storm with an important and elaborated but simple problem statement, which helps to keep the people in touch with the main topic of the discussion. It’s all about the focus on customer needs and not about the organizational priority which will make the discussion narrow minded with the prospect of only thinking for the company profits. Author also talks about the rules at IDEO and different sign boards which help them be focused. Another secret is to number the ideas basically by setting a target of specific number of ideas that need to be presented as a sort of the goal. Also taking a leap backwards so as to not wander away from the main topic is important. A good way is to start on a light note and put on energy as the steep flow of discussion goes on. Transitions are important. Being low-tech isn’t being naïve but is being smart as it helps to recapture to the ideas back if we are lost. A warm up is healthy if the group is infrequently active or unrelated to each other. Show and tell works the best to discuss the brainstorms as proved by the IDEO observation. Lastly, sketching, mapping, drawing is the easiest and a good way to get better at the brainstorm. The other facts in the paper talk about the things that can ruin a brainstorm. For example, a boss should never start as it sets an agenda for the meeting and eventually restricts the flow of discussion thus limiting the useful and innovative ideas. Hiring only experts for a discussion isn’t wise and nor is keeping an order of discussion. Onsite work is more important and just noting down everything is a bad practice. Author thus completely elaborates the concepts of brainstorm

Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati 20:34:47 10/6/2015

<Critiques for Brainstorming> Brainstorming is a term used for group discussions trying to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering list of ideas. It can be considered as an exercise for brain muscles. Moreover, participants can learn different ways of approaching a problem in brainstormer. It can be considered as a friendly environment for participants to shine and show their skills. The following are the ways to improve brainstorming: 1. The start point in a brainstormer is the discussion topic. Having a description of the problem with the right level of specificity directs group discussion. A good topic statement should focus on customer need instead of organizational goals. 2. Rules should be defined for brainstormer. These are better to be printed beforehand or reminded during discussion. “preventing debating members’ ideas “ is an example of these rules. 3. 3. It is better to number, since brings us two advantages, motivating participants and jumping back and forth while still keeping track of discussion. 4. In power curve, momentum starts slowly, then continues intensely and finally starts to plateau. It is important to jump from plateau by asking new questions to directing the discussion to another high power point. 5. During brainstorming no meeting noting is needed. Writing ideas for group on a medium visible to everyone is sufficient for keeping track of the discussion. 6. Warming up participants’ brains is needed n cases in which members aren’t familiar with each other or are new with brainstorming. Fast-paced word game or content-related Home works are good exercises. 7. Make brainstormers as more physical as you can. Present ideas in visual formats by any tool you are capable of working with. Besides all the ways improving brainstormers, they are some actions kills them. If bosses give speech at the beginning of sessions, they unintentionally define boundaries for participants’ ideas. The sessions should be dynamic. Considering turn for members to express their ideas kills the sprit of throwing wild ideas. We need variety of ideas, thus people from different fields are needed. Having experts from specific fields related to the topic kills the innovation. Ding discussions off-site just cause in lack of concentration on the topic. Having some fun and silly stuff makes the members more productive and energetic. Writing all stuff just distracts minds from throwing innovative ideas.-----------------------------------------<Critique for Capturing and Interacting with Design History> Generally, this paper introduced a new system to keep design history. In this system users are capable of redoing and undoing their actions. This system also supports direct manipulating interface, which use people’s natural way of operation on board as input. As I believed, the research result in this paper is important. It both gives user an interface that can use computers in their natural way of operations on board and a great history managing system. Traditional way s to manage history to achieve redo and undo function has its disadvantage. After undo, if the user edit the file, the user will not be able to redo what was undo before, by which means that the system does not store the whole history. This new system did support the storing of the full history, and it gave user different ways to display the histories, which are showing main timeline, local timeline and synopsis views. Also users can do filtering by time, note and author etc. It gives user an easy way to look at the history in order to improve their development. This is important since it can help developers achieve a good result in a shorter time. Recently, there are some systems that have some similar history managing strategy in the market. One of them is GitHub. It is good at version control of software development. People can undo the changes and people can see the highlighted changes between different versions. Also it supports branches so that users can have multiple timelines for one software development. It is a great system to use, but it doesn’t have the direct manipulating interface mentioned in the paper so that it need to take some times of users to learn how to use it frequently.

Zinan Zhang 21:09:33 10/6/2015

1. For Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History.---------------------- The paper mainly talks about the capturing and interacting with design history. In the paper, the author shows their history system in details and analysis its performance. Finally the author introduce their history system to some website designers and get a good feedback showing that this history system is pretty good. In the author’s history system, it shows the history in many thumbnail pictures so that the user can easily find the history they need by looking through them. I think that is a really awesome design! As a user of the Microsoft office, the redo/undo function is not quite good when I work with it. Just like what the author states in the paper, that kind of function will delete the history that I really need. And as a computer programmer, I always have to save the history version by myself so that I can recover my codes when I screw it. Therefore, the history system is a really good design. It can solve the problem that many people in different kinds of career faced with. And there are also searching function if there are too much history and the author cannot just find what he or she want by looking at them. The searching function can be used either by activity filter or inferred filters. So it is really intelligence. That is a user-friendly design as well. When using this history system in practice, users will inevitably face the problem: how can I find what I need in so many histories? Looking for it one by one is not a reliable and efficient way. So the author gives the searching function for the users. Then users can add some marks, like bookmarks, on the certain thumbnails history picture. And users can get look back to this history in a flash. In addition, if the user forgets to add the bookmarks, the searching function is also valid as well. The system can filter history by timeline, author or date to make sure that the users can get what they need. I think the author vividly shows us what is a user-friendly design should be like. The good design has to be convenient for users in every step and every detail. It is a good quality for the designer to think everything before the users. Then the designs can be appreciate by the world. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. For the Perfect Brainstorm.--------------------- The paper mainly talks about the benefit of the brainstorm and how to lead a good brainstorm. There are seven secrets for better brainstorming and six ways to kill a brainstorm mentioned in the paper. Among the seven secrets for better brainstorming, the first rules: ”sharpen the focus” is especially important I think during a brainstorming. The theme of a brainstorm has to be a concrete but not narrow one. Just like what the author says in the paper, “edgy is better than fuzzy”. A fuzzy problem cannot get a clear answer at last no matter how hard the participant tried. Just take one of my experiences as an example. I was chose to lead a team in order to prepare for a small evening party. At first, I have no idea about the party so I want to use the brainstorm to deal with it. I gathered my team together and ask them what to do in the party. Everybody was puzzled and did not come up with any idea in an hour. Then someone suggest that we could start from the theme of the party and later talked about the details. The suggestion really did work. We solved the problem in next two hour. And among the six ways to kill a barnstormer, “everybody gets a turn” is really a disaster for brainstorming. I have ever been taken a class when I was an undergraduate student and the teacher asked everyone in the class to give an idea about the topic he put on the class. When it was my turn to give my answer, I really have no idea in my mind at that moment. I was embarrassed and nervous. So I think there is no help by “everyone gets a turn” when someone really need an answer from people.

Mingda Zhang 22:57:25 10/6/2015

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interaction with Design History This paper introduces a new system as a design assistance tool with evaluation of its performance with professional designers. Simply speaking, the authors try to record history of the entire design process as further reference if needed. This system combines tangible direct manipulation interfaces with natural interaction with users. By replacing the traditional desk, papers and pens with wall-size electronic board, post-it notes and multiple cameras, the system can allow users to work in a comfortable way to collaborate but also keep all history. Compared with other similar functional systems, they are able to hierarchically record the history rather than linear history. In their design, many successful prototypes are used as reference. In other words, they borrow a lot of ideas from existing products, such as Classroom 2000. In fact this is how a real useful product can be invented: no great invention is produced from nowhere in a day, they are all inspired from ancestors in one way or another. A most important lesson from the paper is how they design this system. They do not work alone and imagine the needs for users; instead, they invited several professional designers to participate in the designing of such tools because they understand that designers (rather than programmers) are the main customer for such design. Therefore they are able to fine tune their system to better satisfy the designers' need. From my own perspective, this technique is basically quite like the version control tools such as GitHub. These tool software are widely used in software engineering and other areas. It is also a great example of borrowing ideas from relating fields. The Perfect Brainstorm This paper focused on the significance and rational approaches of doing brainstorms. Personally speaking I found this paper really helpful especially since we were working hard on the term project. What I used to believe about brainstorming is actually inefficient and unproductive according to the author. The first misunderstanding of brainstorm is the frequency. I used to believe that I was pretty innovative and could be a great brainstormer, indeed I was wrong. The more practice the better you will do with novel ideas. In this paper, the authors provided very specific suggestions for effective brainstorming. For example, the main problem, aka main topic should be focused on all the time. A good statement was critical because it could avoid aimless wandering meanwhile unleash participants creativity. Another example is to label each individual ideas with number. From my own experience it is very effective motivation, and authors are agreeing with such opinion. Besides, as repeated illustrated, greatest idea usually comes from a lot of ideas. On the other hand, the author proposed several common problems for brainstorming. Most of them are rules that kill innovations, such as the order of giving ideas and inviting only experts. Although this paper is mainly talking about company-level product innovation, it is actually closely related to almost everything - we all want to come up new ideas to solve problems better and faster! In a word, brainstorming could be a valuable skill if we practice frequently in a right way.

Long Nguyen 23:39:32 10/6/2015

Read on "Where Do Web Sites Come From?: Capturing and Interacting with Design History": In the first impression when reading title and abstract, I thought the paper presents state of the art and history of web design. However, it's totally a mislead, and the main idea of this paper is to show mechanism/tools to capture and display historic information design in early stage. The mechanism is described in Designer's Outpost, a tool to supports information to the web design. Approach is also simple: designers write idea in sticky note and hang up in white board, camera took the pictures of white board and software have the ability to filter "By Time", "By Note", and "By Author". Later designers can review their ideas through pictures captured and using filter to have the correct timeline idea they want. The paper mentioned branched history, which is a problem in action strand, however the solution for this problem is not completed because of its complexity. In total, I think this paper is very simple and not very interesting. Read on "The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of ideas": It's a nice ariticle showing the important and effect of brainstorming. The author start with 7 ways to improve brainstormer in meeting, with sharpen the focus, playful rules, number ideas, build and jump ideas, remember the space, sketch mental focus and get physical. It ends with 6 ways to kill a brainstormer: the boss gets to speak first, everybody gets a turn, expert only, do it offsite, no silly stuff and write down everything.

Chi Zhang 23:41:23 10/6/2015

Critiques on “Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History” by Chi Zhang. This paper is an introduction paper about the creation of internet and web technologies. The authors mainly talked about three mechanisms to present the history. They designed a system for the purpose of showing history. The system is comprised of main timeline, local timeline, and synopsis view. Users are allowed to go back in time to see when some objects were created and changed. When the history was captured, users can choose to view it from main timeline, local timeline or synopsis view. Each component in the system is suitable for different cases. Timeline is helpful for viewing state changes and visualizing a chain of actions. This paper proposed an interesting system. It was very insightful and accurate. According to the time it got published, the authors really did very good researches. ------------------------------------------- Critiques on “The Perfect Brainstorm” by Chi Zhang. This paper tells us about how to have a perfect brainstorm, what it needs for a perfect brainstorm. The authors introduced seven secrets for better brainstorm. They include Sharpen the Focus, Playful Rules, Number your ideas, Build and Jump, The space Remembers, Stretch your mental muscles, Get physical. They also told about six ways to kill brainstorm: The boss gets to speak first, everybody gets a turn, experts only please, do it off-site, no silly stuff, write down everything. As a whole, this is a very good paper in detailedly introducing brainstorm approaches and its problems, and the authors gave very insightful advice on improving the efficiency of brainstorming.

Ankita Mohapatra 23:47:42 10/6/2015

Reading Critique on Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting With Design History: This paper states that to have a meaningful understanding of a design in its current state, it is necessary to have an understanding of the process by which it evolved into that form. As a possible solution to this, the authors have created a new, collaborative web design system that maintains a history of all changes made to the design. Metadata on past design states allows for unique views of the history, both at different semantic time intervals and organized by different contexts. Techniques used for developing this system included building upon past research and doing user studies. An important method the researchers used to discuss their project was to explicitly cite and discuss all of the previous work that inspired the features of their current work. By doing this, they provided a detailed history of the origins of the ideas, much like their proposed system is intending to do. This makes it clear that the authors are building upon previous work and gives a context for their ideas. Not only did they consult past research, but they also consulted potential users of their system to figure out what issues might arise before doing any development – they interviewed many professional website designers. This research also involved user studies in multiple groups, and the authors made an effort to go into detail about the process by which the design adapted in reaction to user feedback. They described the modifications that occurred after each user group tested the system, and kept the discussion of the system focused on how it could map appropriately to designers’ common practices. A theme that appeared here that was familiar from our past papers on ubiquitous computing was the idea of minimizing interruption of the user’s workflow. Although in a sense helpful, the system’s automatic refreshing of the history after every action was distracting and intrusive to the users’ visual focus, and so many users reacted to that aspect of the interface. Possibly the most useful thing about this paper is that the discussion of designing an interface for interacting with history (in terms of the process of creation) was done in such a way as to be valuable for any domain, not just web design. By presenting detailed information about how the web designers worked and viewed the system, the authors provided context for others to try and understand how a historical interface might apply to some other domain of work that would benefit from an application that permitted historical state interactions.=================================================================================================================================================== Reading Critique on Reflective Physical Prototyping through Integrated Design, Test, and Analysis: This paper introduces a newly created “statechart-based visual design tool” called d.tools and elaborates on the value of prototyping in the design process and how software might support prototyping. The authors clearly state their methods for assessing the system in their abstract: a user study, researchers’ use of the software to do real work, observation of others using the system. Some points they emphasize are that design is a “thinking-by-doing” process that necessitates working with physical materials and going through multiple iterations of design. By observing the weaknesses of past work in this area, the researchers decisively made their system more flexible, offering extensibility at 3 different levels of hardware (hardware-to-PC, intra-hardware communication, and circuit) and at the software level (Java hooks). It seems like a very direct parent of the Arduino system we have been using for our homework assignment, but looking at the date reveals that this paper comes the year after Arduino. Interestingly, the paper claims, on page 6, to have contributed “Plug-and-Play” hardware. One key difference between d.tools and Arduino is that the circuitry is abstracted away from (by using common connectors) so that the designer does not need to spend much effort connecting components. The authors made an attempt to address the issue of accessibility to recorded history; d.tools records video of user interactions with the prototype but this information is only useful when designers can quickly find the relevant portions of the videos. This issue was reminiscent of the difficulties faced trying to interact with design histories in the other paper. Both teams used context, or implicit information about the physical/computational environment, to structure data visually for the designers. One lesson that the paper tries to get across about designing design systems is that designers are not programmers. Programming or other textual manipulation should be abstracted away from so that designers can keep their focus on the problem domain. This lesson can be applied to design for any other field – users should be able to directly manipulate objects at the level of their expertise.

Priyanka Walke 0:28:00 10/7/2015

Reading Critique on Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting With Design History This paper mainly explains about a history interface that has been built as an extension to a tool that is support tool for informative Web Design named Existing Designer’s Output. The main purpose after the creation of this history interface was to design an informal and much livelier methodology for designing web sites. Also, this design should help inventing and conducting ideas and even different versions without giving any burden to the users of those websites. This design history interface mainly focuses on 3 important attributes namely global timeline, local timeline and the synopsis view. It also has some filtering options features that use actions, commands and even bookmarks which guide the view of the timeline. Few research papers prior to this one mention some methods that have some common resemblance to that of this history interface. The history interface makes use of post-it by converting them into electronic format as thumbnails. We can even make modifications to the node by using annotations, links or even add/remove any node. It also makes use of some physical interfaces along with the knob to go through the thumbnails, thereby relieving the user from getting up every single time in order to access the board. It has been designed so efficiently that the user can have a look at the history of the work completed till that point, experiment on different approaches without losing the current work. It also has a new feature that displays and even remembers the branching history along with the sequence one incorporating the other and also expandable when requested. All the features are simple to understand. The entire system has been tested thoroughly by professional testers which encountered some issues like the loss of calmness while using the View all filter because of presence of numerous branches. Hence, the corresponding filter has now been added in the future scope of the paper. Reading Critique on The Perfect Brainstorm The author is highly obsessed by the art of brainstorming which covers this entire article by stating its need, methods to perform it and also the different things required to keep in mind while brainstorming. The author asks people to let their ides flow without any restriction to their imagination. He also states that being in a comfort zone without any discrimination always creates a healthy atmosphere for ideas to flow freely. This can result in getting many individual ideas of which at least 8-10% may be highly innovative an even scholarly. Also it gives a variety of approaches of looking towards a single problem by different people and at times a perfect soliton for a problem could be achieved by using combinations of some ideas. This paper clears up a lot of myths about the concept of brainstorming. A general perspective of brainstorming is to narrow down our approach of thinking towards a specific problem which was completely nullifies by the author. He states that this definitely the incorrect way of brainstorming and can result in the end of the entire session. He also disclosed his seven secrets and six different ways to kill a brainstorm which is a complete package that is a definite takeaway from this paper. Therefore, the paper can be summarized by saying that brainstorming is definitely an innovative art of problem solving. It is definitely a must for every individual to possess this skillset.

Samanvoy Panati 0:49:04 10/7/2015

Critique 1: Where do web sites come from? Capturing and interacting with design history This paper discusses about three mechanisms to access the design history and describes the functionality of these mechanisms. It illustrates their utility in the context of the various scenarios. These mechanisms include stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline and an annotated synopsis view. The stub-branching main timeline displays a history of the design using thumbnails. An in situ object timeline offers the user more detailed information about a particular note without visually cluttering the entire board. The last one displays each bookmark on the left and a textbox on the right. At the end, the authors mention that in the future they plan to explore various heuristics for building concise histories and for the ability to merge them. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Critique 2: The perfect brainstorm-the art of innovation In this chapter, the author illustrates the importance of brainstorming, what constitutes a brainstorm and how to organize it effectively. The sessions of brainstorming are called brainstormers and they last for about an hour. He explains seven secrets for a successful brainstormer. The problem statement should be well-articulated, critiques and debates should not be encouraged, and ideas should be numbered and written down, wild ideas should be encouraged, different paths should be explored are some of the secrets for better brainstorming. A good brainstormer gives the members a lot of confidence and paves the way for new possibilities. The author also explains what shouldn’t be done in a brainstormer. He mentions them as six surefire ways to kill a brainstormer. Neither boss speaking first and giving a constrained problem statement nor giving everybody a turn or time-limit lead to an open brainstormer. Allowing only experts to talk, doing the brainstorming in a particular off shore place, writing down every word of the discussion or making the discussion formal doesn’t help to achieve good brainstormers. Brainstorming allows the participants to relax, have fun, build confidence and gets the better out of them.

shijia liu 1:00:32 10/7/2015

Section 1: Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: Based on the principle that to form a deep understanding of the present, we need to find and engage an account of the past, and motivated by Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use, edited by Moran and Carroll, the paper proposed an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative and early-stage information design, and is implemented in the context of the Designers’ Output, which is a wall-scale, tangible interface for collaborative web site design. Three mechanisms are presented for accessing design history, thus, a main timeline, a local timeline, and a synopsis view. The main timeline is a visually navigable set of design thumbnails organized on a timeline. The local timeline enables users to see a history with just the actions relating to an individual object in the design, in the actual design. The synopsis view enables post-design review of key bookmarks. Six professional designers use the history system and offer their feedback for design study, and using the feedbacks, the history system is improved. From the design study, it can be seen that the history system provides substantial value to designers, heuristics that help build a concise history without distracting the user would be looked further into.============================Section 2: The Perfect Brainstorm:Though most people use brainstorm in their business, it does not result in valuable results, or would takes extra effort to get. There are seven secrets to make a brainstorm sing. Firstly, the question should be sharpened as simple as possible; secondly, do not critique or debate any ideas, which will sap the session pretty quickly, this is so-called playful rules; thirdly, rotten written is better than good memory, so mark and number every idea for back to pick; fourthly, watch for opportunity for “built” and “jumping”, the high-energy brainstorm always bring up with a series of steep curves; fifth, the spatial memory is important, so write the flow of ideas down in a medium visible to the whole group; sixth, it is necessary to stretch mental muscles in certain circumstances, for example, the member has not worked together; seventh, visualize the brainstorms using sketching, mind mapping, diagrams and stick figures, etc. Energy brainstorms may bring up hundreds of ideas and ten of them may be solid leads. For individuals, it is like stretching exercises for mind if participate brainstorms regularly. Effective brainstorm is powerful, however, there are some ways that would kill it, thus, boss speaking first, speaking by turn, the right experts, do it off-site, no silly stuff, and writing down everything.

Lei Zhao 1:25:06 10/7/2015

Paper 1: This paper discusses the history system that present an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early- stage information design. It implements in three mechanisms, that is a main timeline, a local timeline, and a synopsis view. The system mainly consists of board surface, front camera and rear camera. The user can create new pages by writing on new notes, post them to the electronic wall and organize a site by physically moving the notes around on the board. The principle is that the rear camera will capture the location of notes, detecting the adding or moved notes. And the front camera captures the contents on the physical notes. Thus, the two aspects of information will construct the system. ======================= Paper 2: The main content of this paper is to give some advise on how to conduct a successful brainstorming. First, the author argues that even many people think they often do brainstorming, but it is not the truth. This is because most of the people only do brainstorming less than once a month, while a real brainstormer should do it regularly such as every day. Another reason is that most people do not use the time efficiently, according to the author, a brainstorm should usually take about one to one and half hour. Then the author gives 7 suggestions on how to conduct a brainstorm: 1) sharpen the focus 2) playful rules 3) number your ideas 4) build and jump 5) the space remembers 6) stretch your mental muscles 7) get physical. This paper actually reminds me the video shown in class when the professor is on a trip. In the video, a complete process of a successful brainstorm to design a new shop cart is displayed. I think this topic is not only interesting and important for HCI designs, but also for all other kinds of projects.

Xinyue Huang 3:10:50 10/7/2015

Where do web sites come from? Capturing and interacting with design history The paper presented an informal history mechanism for collaborative design of informal architecture. It has presented three novel history visualizations for collaborative early-phase design: a stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline, and an annotated synopsis view. In this paper, the author designed the history system around a set of scenarios that are distilled from design fieldwork studies: the first is reaching an unproductive point, the second is writing a summary of a design session, the third one is finding the rationale behind a decision and the final one is creating a set of action items from a design session. Much of the thinking about design history is motivated by design rationale: concepts, techniques, and use. A lot of design rationale systems have been designed such as IBIS, QOC and VKB. The paper also introduces the history through capture and access. Before building the history system, they conducted and learned from field and design studies. The system provided three facilities for interacting with design history: a main timeline, a local timeline and a synopsis view. Timeline visualization includes filtering thumbnails. The filters can be divided into activity filters and inferred filters. The activity filters are based on explicit actions made by the user and include show by actions, by bookmarks and by meeting. Another two aspects are timeline navigation and branched time visualization. Besides these, the paper also introduces synopsis visualization and history usage scenarios. The history scenarios include reloading a dead-end, writing a session summary, finding the rationale behind a decision and following up on a session. The paper also introduces the implementation. In the final part of the paper, the paper also introduced the design study which include timeline study and need for visual comparison and merging. The paper hoped that this work exploring interfaces for history in the context of collaboration will inspire work in other professional domains as well. The second reading The paper believed that doing more brainstorming would deliver more value, create more energy, foster more innovative through better brainstorming. The paper shared with us seven secrets for better brainstorming. The first one is sharpen the focus. It is more easier to bring people back into the main topic if we have a well-articulated description of the problem at just the right level of specificity. Also the best topic statement focus outward on a specific customer need or service enhancement rather than focusing inward on some organizational goal. The second one is playful rules, which means to come up with one way to turn aside critiques without turning off the critiquers completely. The third one is number the ideas. It can help us motivate the participants before and during the session and it is also great to jump back and forth from idea to idea without losing track. The fourth one is to build and jump. This can help us keep the energy up. The fifth one is the space remember, The sixth one is stretch the mental muscles, which means that some warm-up practice is necessary. The last one is get physical, which include three ways: bring in everything but the kitchen sink, have materials on hand to build crude models of a concept. The third one is bodystorming. Beside these, there are also six ways to kill a brainstorming. The first one is that the boss gets to speak first. The second one is that everybody gets a turn. The third one is experts only please. The fourth one is do it off-site. The next one is no silly stuff and the final one is write down everything.

Jesse Davis 4:18:10 10/7/2015

The Perfect Brainstorm This excerpt covers many different important ideas pertaining to brainstorming. It first defines brainstormers and gives some examples of brainstorming sessions before going over the seven secrets for better brainstorming which are: sharpen the focus (have a well-defined problem before starting), playful rules (come up with ideas to make the brainstorming session fun and to motivate specific types of results), numbering the ideas (self-explanatory, shoot for ~100 ideas an hour), build and jump (build upon ideas, or jump back to previous stages of an idea if the current stage doesn’t seem like it will be promising), record ideas (record ALL the information that comes from a brainstorming session so that you may refer to it later and build upon it), stretch your mental muscles (sometimes warm-up exercises are required in specific scenarios e.g. people that are participating in the session are new or don’t brain storm often), and getting physical (making prototypes, creating sketches, etc.). The excerpt closes with 6 very important things to avoid that will essentially kill a brainstormer or brainstorming session: boss gets to speak first (can limit others by causing boundaries to be set), everybody gets a turn (taking turns and going in order severely limits creativity), experts only (self-explanatory, non-experts often have a different outlook on a problem than an expert and can provide views of a problem from different angles), do it off-site (distractions are abundance and makes it seem like the workplace can’t be a place for creativity), no silly stuff (creativity killer), and writing everything down (recording information in brainstorms is very important, but logging/chronicling information in a boring manner can kill the creative process). Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History As the title suggests, this paper primarily consists of exploring design history and how we can use it affect how we design web sites today. It focuses on The Designers’ Outpost which is collaborative tool that supports information design for web pages. It takes the pen and paper idea of early web development and makes a more tangible user interface out of it that multiple people can manipulate more easily, making for more creative, elaborate designs while promoting brain storming through the use of Post-it notes and a SMART board. Overall, the application seemed pretty useful and like a good idea, especially after implementing the save features, but I felt that there was a steep learning curve when it came to learning how to use the timeline.

Darshan Balakrishna Shetty 8:05:52 10/7/2015

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: This paper talks about Designers' Outpost, which is a prototyping tool for iterative physical designing. An implementation of a history interface the history capturing system for early-stage information design. The system provides design history by main timeline, local timeline and synopsis view. For main timeline, users could view the history of the entire design process. The entire history is represented by branched/tree structured time visualization capturing the undo and redo work. By this way, we could have a whole picture of our design process without missing any undo operations. For local timeline, we could have a view of one object design process, which could help us improve a certain part of the web design. For synopsis view, bookmarker could be generated by two different ways. First is manually creating a bookmarker, and second is system will automatically creat a bookmarker every 12 actions periodically. Synopsis is kind of some important notes to be viewed for future, which is a very significant function for designers. I believe this kind of informal history system is very useful as because during the design phase a late of ideas are written down and discarded but it is difficult to remember why it was discarded and what was the idea which might be important at a later stage. So I think this kind of system is very useful for many types of designing besides being specific to web site design. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Brainstorming : The article mainly talks about how important brainstroming is for an organization as well as for the individual. The article gives an insight into the ideas and brainstorming sessions held in IDEO's culture, how they nurtured and enhanced the brainstorming environment in the organization. Not only for the organization but also for an individual how energizing and elevating the brainstorming session is. Brainstorming is a practice which improves after each session it's like regular exercise for your brain. The author explains a number of steps or guidelines which they followed in IDEO that lead to a productive brainstorming session. The article also points out what are the things which are not to be followed in brainstorming. All in all I felt the article was very relevant and useful which we can follow in our brainstorming sessions for our projects and research.

Kent W. Nixon 8:31:52 10/7/2015

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History In this paper, the authors discuss a website content history management system that they designed. The system is based on a wall-size interface which is able to detect Post-It notes that are attached to it, and project information overtop of the interface using a ceiling mounted projector. Designers are able to map out their ideas using trees of Post-It notes, and make annotations and view previous versions of the tree using the system. The authors conclude by discussing the influence of real-world trials in their design. I would consider this a “fluff” paper, i.e. there is little in regards to quantitative metrics for usability that are presented, and instead all evidence is related as anecdotal. It is as if this is simply an advertisement for some emerging company’s product. This is not a paper which would get published in my field. Brainstorming This is an excerpt from a book written by what I can assume is the head of the IDEO company – the same one we watched a video on earlier in the year. In this chapter, he discusses what a brainstorming session should be in order to be successful, and how to set the groundwork to encourage this. Basically, a brainstorming session should be as free-flowing and as informal as possible, while still making sure that everyone remains on task. Further, the environment should be prepare so that team members are able to most easily express themselves – this includes things like providing building materials, to allowing members to physically demonstrate use cases, to covering every surface in paper to draw out ideas. I think the latter part of this article – i.e. have a workspace conducive to work - is sorely overlooked by the majority of people I come into contact with, and their work suffers for it. I have noticed this specifically in the CS department, as student labs are often cluttered, dirty, and littered with old equipment. I’m not sure how anyone can work well with all that stuff in the way.

Sudeepthi Manukonda 8:38:19 10/7/2015

“Where Do Web Sites Come From?” is an interesting paper that talks about how information was presented from over time, called the information interface. This i indirectly saying that, the history needs to be studied in order to understand the present and know why it is the way it is. There are three timelines that this paper talks about, a main timeline, a local timeline and a synopsis view. The first one is a visually navigable set of design thumbnails organised on a timeline. The second one allows the user to actually see the design. And the third allows post-design review of important bookmarks. These are beneficial for easy portability and sharing. History system marks the history of events and the results from the past. Several experiments have been taking place in order to establish this history system. Newman and Landy interviewed eleven professional web site designers. This interview gave two import an trestles. Firstly designers create many different intermediate interpretations of a website. Secondly, designers expressed a desire to have a unique way to manage different ideas. Web Site creation or designing is is a very detail oriented task. Every small operation has to be addressed to great detail. Timeline visualisation talks about major topics like filtering thumbnails, timeline navigation, branched timeline visualisation and local timeline visualisation. Synopsis Visualisation talks about bookmarks, importune of them, and how efficiently can they come of any use. History can be used in many scenarios. The first scenario is reaching dead end. This talks about an example where one part of the website is disconnected from the other and how this has made the user reach the dead end. Second scenario is the writing a session summary. Without history in mind session summary is just another fallacy. In conclusion to the paper, three-phase design, a stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline and an annotated synopsis view have been provided. A group of scientists have evaluated the system. Lets hope that this work exploring interfaces for history will motivate more work in the future. -----Brainstorming is an interesting way of exploring and pushing one’s self to great extents. Everyone looks at brainstorming as something they’ve been doing for a while and that there is no big a deal in this. Brainstorming makes someone or an organisation deliver more value, more energy and foster more innovation through better brainstorming. This paper talks about seven secrets for better brainstorming. The first now is sharpening the focus. Base for any brainstorming process is understanding the problem. Second one is called playful rules. This talks about objectives. What do you want to maximise or what do you want to minimise. The third one is the number of ideas. It gives a motivation to the participants to reach the number of ideas. And it also allows to set priority to the ideas. The fourth one is called build and jump. High energy brainstormers tend to follow a series of steep “power”curves, in which momentum builds slowly and then change. The fifth one is the “Space Remembers”. Its about the spatial memory. The sixth one is stretching your mental muscles. And the final rule is “Get Physical”. The best brainstormers always get physical. It always gives scope for new and improvised understanding of the world. It inspires and pushes people and organisations. There are also six ways of killing a brainstormer. They are when the boss always gets to speak first, when everyone gets to speaks in turn for certain amount of time, when experts talk only to please, performing experiments off site and applying the results, saying no to silly stuff and attempting to write down everything. These six practices kill a brainstormer and thus should be avoided.

Adriano Maron 8:40:58 10/7/2015

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: This paper presents a system for capturing and retrieval of design history. The design history is presented in terms of main timeline, local timeline and synopsis view. The main timeline considers user-defined criteria to visualize different snapshots taken over time. As for the local timeline, it is possible to visualize specific history related to individual objects in the design. Finally, the synopsis view consists of a review of the key bookmarks used in the project. This work is relevant due its combination of physical objects (post-it notes) and digital objects (snapshots, branches, etc.). The evaluation was performed by six professional designers. The most relevant feedback from evaluation were related to the necessity of multiple history comparisons and merging of different states. =============================================== The Perfect Brainstorm: This chapter discuss a few approaches to take the most out of the brainstorming process. The first important characteristic about brainstorming is that this is not the time to take notes; it is the time to speak freely and build on the ideas of others. More specific secrets for a successful brainstorming session are exposed by the author: focus in one well defined topic, do not critique ideas, number the ideas to keep track of the line of reasoning, know when to build up on ideas or propose a completely different one, spread notes about every idea around the room and use as many virtual/physical artifacts as necessary; visualization is the key of brainstorming. Similarly, there are things that could easily kill a brainstorming session, such as: strict hierarchy (where one person -- the boss -- defines very limited scope for the discussion), excess of control about the flow of the session, experts-only sessions and necessity of logging the entire discussion (don't write down everything!!). By keeping those do/don't in mind, it is possible to constantly come up with good ideas for any project.