Mobile Interfaces - 2

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Reading Critiques

Ameya Daphalapurkar 17:24:18 10/15/2015

The paper titled ‘Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations’ proposes a visualization technique named Wedge. Compared to earlier techniques such as arrow based City Light technique or Halos were good but they lacked the properties related to the clutter. Wedge on the other hand does convey the fundamental necessities of direction and distance and also helps reduce the clutter and overlaps. Other than the similar functionality as compared to Halo the wedge even further succeeds in providing more number of degrees of freedoms. The other considerable factors of over view and details, focus and context techniques include enlarged focus region and surrounding context. Halo doesn’t prove as conventional as compared to Wedge for conveying distance and direction. Wedge thrives better because of its rotation, aperture and intrusion by avoiding the overlap, maximizing the accuracy and by additional cue. The algorithm thus can be mapped out by the qualities of intrusion, aperture, corners, rotation etc. The user case study mentioned in the paper has its results categorized in factors of position, type and density. Off screen location detection, tackling the traffic jam, finding the closest restaurant were some of the user tasks in the research study. Thus conclusively the paper proved the advantages of Wedge over Halo but also helped derive that Halo has good direction function, although the overall result being proved that Wedge is effective than Halo. ***************************** The paper titled ‘Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays’ focuses on the results based on the experiments that analyzed the efficiency of those displays. There are various briefings of different projects that include stylizing the displays for changes in behavior. The paper in depth explains the UBIFIT system and also its interactive applications and display. Evaluation of the efficiency involved statistical analysis. Research also contains evaluating results of context variables. Glance able display thus proved efficient and important and was applauded by the participants in the study.

Zinan Zhang 22:03:51 10/15/2015

1. For Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays------- This paper mainly focuses on introducing their application on phone called ‘UbiFit’. This kind of application can encourage people’s self-monitoring and increase of physical activity. And several test shows that this application is successful. As we can see from the paper, this paper is published in 2008. At that time there were few application like UbiFit. However, now this kind of application has already been popularized. In this paper, the UbiFit help people to achieve their physic exercise with encouragement. It will not give people any punishment if people have not completed their task in a day. Today’s applications focus on the same thing that to encourage people to do some exercise. But the difference is the way of the encouragement. Today’s application mostly posts people’s exercise data to the internet and then compete with their friends. Let other friends’ data to be stimulation so that people will keep on doing exercise or even doing harder next time. For example, yesterday I walked for 30 minutes with my application turning on. Then my application would record the total steps I had in the 30 minutes (maybe also evaluate the calories consumed in that time) and upload them on the internet. My friends’ data would also be put on internet and our data would be ranked. The rank gives people a sense of competence, encouraging people to performance well next time. If I find there is a friend ranked higher than me, I feel not good and eager to be ranked higher than him next time. in a word, I think this kind of encourage is much better and more motivate than the way mentioned in the paper. If I am going to develop an application like UbiFIt, I definitely choose to motive people by competing with their friends. It is an effective way and it can enhance the friendship.========================================== 2. For Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations---- This paper mainly talks about a new method to represent each off-screen location using an acute isosceles triangle. And the authors apply this new method on an application called Wedge. In the paper the authors compare their device to the former application, which is called Halo. The Halo’s method to indicate the location is to circle the destination but the user cannot easily find the destination when the circle overlapped and not easily to see the distance toward the destination. But the Wedge transforms the circle into a new graph. It has three features: rotation, intrusion and aperture. The development of the new method Wedge makes the position of the destination more accurate. The accuracy shows not only on the distance but also the direction. The new graph eliminates the ambiguous of the overlap problem. Personally, I think this kind of innovation is pretty good. It is quite clear for me to understand where is my destination and how far it is from me now.

Vineet Raghu 17:50:20 10/17/2015

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualizations of Off-Screen Locations The authors here propose a new technique to display off screen locations to users in a mobile interface environment called Wedge. The technique works by using isosceles triangles to display to the user the base side of a triangle, while the point of the triangle represents the off-screen target. This is based upon a theory that humans can complete the shape of an only partially visible object. A nice property of this type of approach is that the wedge allows for both size variability and rotational variability, which allows the designers to construct algorithms that prevent overlapping parts, and that maintain a clear picture. Overall, I thought that the researchers did a great job of providing the reader with the current state of the art in mobile display techniques such as Halo and City lights. The experimental setup was pretty sound, but I thought that giving users’ time to practice with the devices may have been useful for this type of experiment, since the goal here is to find the best display for users of mobile devices (who will undoubtedly have practice). The results appeared to be fairly positive for wedge, but I think one aspect that they may also want to measure in addition to their experimental results is visual appeal. All of the questions were tailored towards usefulness, but it may be convenient to know how much users enjoyed the aesthetics of each method. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays This paper examines an application called UbiFit that attempts to encourage awareness of one’s physical activity level in a mobile interface setting. It uses three components to display fitness progress to the user: a glance able display, an interactive application that allows you to set and edit fitness goals and activities, and finally a fitness device that automatically infers physical activity based upon measurable information. The authors here used an experimental setup to validate their results in which a random sample of users were given two out of three of the components of UbiFit (or all three) and were told to try the device for a 12 week period. The results appeared promising as many users enjoyed using the device, and in particular, the display and interactive interface were very useful in motivating users to stay active throughout the day. I thought that the issues the authors raise with the study were excellently posed. In particular, the novelty effect is a problem with most of these innovative applications. Things like FitBit and workout apps like Runtastic, tend to motivate people only for a short period of time until they become bored of these apps. Once this occurs, people tend to forget about exercise. In addition, the fact that the users were using not their typical phone is a bigger issue than the authors seem to think. Simply the act of looking at this irregular phone can encourage users to exercise regardless of the application’s motivational abilities because the phone itself is a reminder of the research study. More careful design might be necessary to mitigate this issue. Overall, I believe the authors present a nice application that at the time of writing must have been fairly innovative. Now days there are many such applications on the market, and many external devices as well. Though the problem of sustaining exercise motivation continues to persist even today.

Zihao Zhao 18:39:59 10/18/2015

The paper “Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations” introduces a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance and avoids overlap and clutter and it is called Wedges. What impressed most is the deep analysis of the design space. The author introduces a series of approach to alleviate the maps on the small screen problem. He introduces the related works of some general technique for showing off-screen contents. Like the overview+detail views show the workspace in miniature and the focus+context techniques and finally comes to Halo which conveys location but not direction and distance. Halo is the most popular application at that time, so the addressing of Wedge compared to Halo deserves deep digging. And the paper point out the weakness of the Halo is the lack of accuracy especially when overlap occurs or the corner visualization. After pointing out this problem, the paper starts to alleviate it by introducing a triangle approach which has 3 degrees of freedom and the degree of freedom will be easily used to avoid overlap and enhance the accuracy while users try to recognize the accurate place of the target using the amodal perception. The experimental design is also clear, since the comparing target is Halo, and all the statistics can be made by directly compare the difference of the two applications. Thus, the paper used the very clear 3 diminutional factors statistics which requires two tables or graphs. Although the user study find out that the participants would prefer Halos in some cases, the author take this statistics into deep consideration that’s the first design didn’t consider the size of the triangle can give hints to the users. And the author take this as a feedback for the next iterative design which deserve us to draw a lesson from.------------------------------------------------- The paper “Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays” is a paper which introduces the way to improve the awareness by combining the mobile phone display and daily activities. This paper is very novel and original to me, because this idea has also occurred in my head and that’s implement a software which displays a tree which the owner walks more it grows more. But I never came to the thought that it can be published as an article. This tells me that the research opportunity exists everywhere especially the human computer interaction part. We should keep our eye on the basic life stuff and try to adopt the computational method and the ubiquitous approach to them. The author drew the idea from some existing system “Breakaway” , “Fish n Steps” and “The Healthy lifestyle coach” and build the mobile phone application that encourage self-monitoring & increase of physical activity. The UbiFit system was designed using an iterative design process and it first conduct a 3-week field trial of the full system with fewer participants and get intuitive feedback which was a main idea on the redesign steps. This is very important on system design, we are going to design a dragging-screen prototype and I think the iterative design will be a better idea for us to design a reasonable prototype. Moreover, the experimental part of the article deserves us to draw a lesson from. On the three month filed experiment, it take a lot of factors into consideration i.e. the availability of Glanceable Display, Age, Gender...And they were modeled as fixed effects. I learned from the paper that the mobile phone screens are personal but they are often not private, and we should consider this principle in our design or research.

Mingda Zhang 12:02:07 10/19/2015

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations In this paper, a new system that using triangles to represent off-screen locations was introduced. The authors mainly compared their system with an existing system, Halo, and improved the accuracy with optimized algorithms. Also, a user study was included in the paper as proof. From my perspective, the idea of labeling off-screen target from in-screen references were interesting. Due to the human nature called amodal perception, human visual system has the capability to automatically complete the missing parts for some partially visible objects. This phenomenon was so natural that most people would not even recognize that they were predicting non-existing parts. Therefore, Halo and Wedge were really natural way for user to represent off-screen targets. This paper improved Halo's idea by replacing circles and arcs by triangles. The benefits were discussed in detail and verified by user-participated experiment. However, it was worth noting that most of current navigation software were not using such technology. One reason was the increment of screen size. From the paper we realized that in 2008 large-screen, pad-size portable devices were not popular due to technology limitation, thus researchers have to try to fit more information into smaller screen. Another minor reason, I believe, was the demand of accuracy. In fact, in most situations if we were trying to locate two far-away targets, the detailed routes between them were not that critical. We were more focusing on their relative directions. Besides, current software were using a auto-resizing technology, according to the real time location of user to determine the size of zoom-in area. It was more convenient thus making the described technology a little outdated. From my perspective, this paper demonstrated a possible solution for an existing problem, but it limited itself in a static environment. With the help of GPS location information, people were actually able to solve the problem in a better way, as we seen today. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays This paper demonstrated their UbiFit system as an interesting experiment of monitoring user's activity. I had to admit that it was a brilliant idea and it was really visionary because in 2008, when the paper was published, few people realized the importance of activity trackers and the underlying billion dollars business. This paper presented the awareness information on mobile display could be a great motivation for users to achieve their tasks. In this paper, they used exercises. The comprehensive experiment conducted in this paper was the core components and it last for three months. The results were analyzed in detail and convincingly validated their proposal. This was a great paper because it was even more important in current world. From this paper, users had to use separate trackers and only the results were reflected on the well-designed interfaces. As we all noticed nowadays smart phones were armed with various sensors to collect different types of data, including the activity tracking sensor. Nowadays we did not need to take additional device and the phone itself, or sometimes with a smart watch/wrist band, we could collect all necessary data. Therefore, I believe that similar studies were important and necessary to reveal a more in-depth relationship between activities and the awareness encouragements.

Samanvoy Panati 18:14:22 10/19/2015

Critique 1: Wedge- Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations The main aim of this paper is to provide a technique that overcomes the display limitations of off-screen objects in small-screen devices. The wedge technique proposed uses isosceles triangles to convey direction and distance and avoid clutter and overlap. An older technique Halo allows the user to infer the exact location of off-screen targets and conveys direction, distance but if there are large number of targets in the same direction, it leads to clutter. A wedge has two legs which when extrapolated gives the exact location of off-screen object. The base of a wedge is used to pair-up legs and prevents the user from pairing up different legs. The main advantage of wedge over its predecessors is its three degrees of freedom – rotation, aperture and intrusion of a wedge. These degrees of freedom can be used to avoid overlap and clutter, maximize location accuracy and provide an additional distance cue. The author gives the formulae along with the other options to calculate these parameters. The user study described in this paper also proves that wedge offers significant accuracy advantages over the Halo in addition to providing equally good distance cues. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Critique 2: Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays The paper discusses about UbiFit, software developed for mobile devices which aims at reminding the user about their physical activity. This encourages people to maintain their fitness and to be healthy. This was previously done in Breakaway and Fish'n'Steps. Breakaway is a small sculpture that is placed on a user's desk. Maintaining fitness by themselves will be a hard task especially during the holidays and winter season where people seldom go out. Giving motivations to user by constantly reminding them is the best way to let them to finish the training. UbiFit’s display method puts the fitness information in the user’s sights each time they use their phone. The authors conducted a 3-week trial in an attempt to confirm that users would continue to be motivated by UbiFit after the novelty of the interface wore off. For this new study, the trail lasted 3 months and intentionally spanned the holiday season, a period of relative inactivity for most people. The feedback was taken from the users after this trial. The statistics from the user study showed that the glanceable display of UbiFit clearly had an effect on the users. With the UbiFit, the user can infer their physical activity from the charts and can maintain their weight even during the holiday season. Now-a-days we can see the applications like this in the form of many wearable devices.

Shijia Liu 20:14:15 10/19/2015

section1: Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: At the beginning of the paper, it shows us two exists techniques of visualization of off-screen locations, City-lights and Halo. City-lights can only convey direction, Halo conveys directions and distances, however, it susceptible to clutter resulting from overlapping halos. By utilizing the exists techniques and concepts, they present a new visualizing off-screen technique which is called Wedge. the shape of the triangle is like a wedge. It reduces the amount of overlap on the display. By using the graph for showing out the Wedge algorithms and some experiments, we can see that wedge obviously decrease the vague and the cost of interpretation, on the other side, it increase the accuracy by move out the overlaps by comparing Halo and Wedge. Furthermore, the author shows that Wedge can be able to used in any devices or applications. It still worth a lot to have a deeper search on it in the future.==================Section 2: At the first, this paper shows us what the system UbiFit is .UbiFit is a mobile technology to encourage users to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity for everyday. Through 28 participants take part in this experiments we can have a significant result is that who had the glanceable display were able to maintain their physical activity level over time and on holiday weeks, while the level of physical activity for participants in the condition who did not have the glanceable display dropped significantly. The target of this technique is in order to encourage individuals to make self-monitoring and behavior change.

Chi Zhang 21:16:40 10/19/2015

Critiques on “Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations” by Chi Zhang. This paper is an introduction to a visualization technique, called Wedge, that could convey location awareness in small screen devices. Its main idea is to use two legs pointing towards the target. Wedge is similar to Halo. Wedge could allow users to infer the approximate distance of the target. Compared to Halo, each wedge offers two additional degrees of freedom and in combination with the layout algorithm the authors presented in this paper, this allows the wedge to avoid each other and thus overlap and clutter. This is a very good paper, and it gives a very comprehensive introduction of the important role played by Wedge in the visualization technologies. --------------------------------------------------------- Critiques on “Flowers or a robot army?: encouraging awareness & activity with personal, mobile displays” by Chi Zhang. This paper is an introduction to UbiFit, which is an an awareness display system to help people maintain their physical activity level. The main idea about this paper is that many always-there displays could be used to increase an individual’s awareness about various elements of daily life. Three components are included: a glanceable display, an interactive application and a fitness device. The glanceable display uses a stylized representation of physical activities to keep the individual focused on the act of self-monitoring. The interactive application includes detailed information about the individual’s physical activities. The fitness device automatically infers and transmits information about several types of activities. UniFit is well presented in the evaluation part and it proves great functionalities. And in all, this is a very carefully designed research paper and it has very good part of designed experiments.

Long Nguyen 21:56:57 10/19/2015

Read on "Flowers or a robot army? Encouraging awareness and activity with personal, mobile displays": The paper presents a brilliant ideas of transforming wallpaper in mobile phone into meaningful information for users. This will help owner directly get information he wants by glancing the phone, at the same time preventing other users understanding the meaning of it by hiding information into form of picture. The paper presents the idea with an actual application called Ubifit, however there's still some challenges needs to be solved/ mentioned more carefully: how could we let users define meaning of information freely, keeping privacy at the same time only by a picture in wall paper? In my opinion a wall paper (static or dynamic) is not enough, and we need some generalized methods to make this idea become reality.-------------------------------------------Read on "Wedge: clutter-free visualization of off-screen location": This paper propses a solution for displaying information usefully on small screen devices. The main idea of this paper in to continuing Halo, which conveys direction and distance of information using circle to show some information on off-screen locations. The changes here based on the idea of using triangle, which can provide three degrees of freedom: rotation, aperture and intrusion of a wedge. With these freedoms, more information can be provided on small screen and at the same time visualization technique can help users recognize faster. I think the approach of this method is very simple yet effective, which is shown in the result part of this paper, where Wedge outperform Halo in almost all experiments.

Priyanka Walke 0:16:21 10/20/2015

Reading Critique on Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations The paper provides an analysis of a new approach of visualizing off-screen objects for achieving better location accuracy while reducing the clutter at the same time. This approach indeed increases the use of Wedges as distance clues from the original approach of halos and arrows along with the comparison between the different methods and discussing the advantages as well as the disadvantages. This paper seems to showcase us how can others work be used as baseline for developing our own work and improve both of them for better results. The exceptional fact here is that of the integration of some previous work and the new work in order to innovate as well as improve the quality of the results. Wedges give good results in corners in case of locate and avoid tasks while halos give equally good results in case of closer tasks as well as on the edges. For the current instance, integration of both of them will definitely give the best optimal solution. In order to look for the necessity of such hints, it is obviously visible when for example, we zoom-in to maps but still want an information about the off-screen objects. Here, the easiest way is to make use of arrows, but since they did not provide hints for distance as well as mapping to closely lying objects was also a problem. Halos were used for similar reason however, it had to face problems like cluttering in case of dense representations and also when objects from the corner were located. Now, in order to overcome these problems, Wedges were found which include the concept of amodal perception and completion. Its drawbacks can be seen when determining some closer objects where some calculations are needed. Wedges can be represented by a base, 2 legs and an aperture between them. The larger the aperture, much farther is the object. Also, the use of a wedge layout algorithm ensured minimal overlap using the 3 main methods of rotation, aperture and intrusion which ensures better representation in the corners. Since the user studies used the same tasks while testing for Halos, it is therefore appropriate to compare them. Reading critique on Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays This paper talks about UbiFit, a system developed for mobile devices to be a part of our environment and as a medium in order to increase our awareness about daily activities of life. This system in this paper has focused on self-monitoring physical activities and also carried out a 3 month long survey. The aim of UbiFit system is to find out the effects of a stylized, abstract representation of a user’s physical activity so as to motivate them and also to make them aware. This study consists of an extensively comprehensive research that involves 28 participants in a survey for about 3 months. Each of them is given either a glanceable display or a fitness monitor. The results show that the glanceable display definitely had an effect on other users as their activity charts were recorded and even compared. It can be inferred that their physical activity goals managed or lost some weight also during holiday season. This paper introduces innovative means to utilize our cell phones much different from the fact of just elevating those using sensors, making use of virtually and a cognitive empty space. Moreover, it does not provide any definitive proof of this working, in case when people simply switch them OFF, so that they are not constantly reminded of not achieving their goals. Also the effect of adding entries to journals which may not always be true or even genuine, so that the user can feel a bit better. The concept of overcoming the novice effect was definitely revealing, in order to find out if the product can maintain its relevancy as a product of the mainstream. The authors state that the system itself made the users aware of the need of physical activity, with the difference that there was no observable goal that motivated them to continue that.

Lei Zhao 0:19:35 10/20/2015

Paper 1: This paper introduce a method to visually indicate the off-screen locations on the map—Wedge. There are two traditional ways to display off-screen locations, which are City Lights, and Halo. Each of them has its own limitation. City lights unable to give user hints of how far away the targets are. Halos which is using overlapping circles make users hard to tell the difference of two locations sometimes. Wedge using acute isosceles triangles with two legs pointing towards the targets to convey direction and distance and avoid overlap and clutter. From the paper, we can see a clear example of Halo and Wedge. However, I cannot find a visual example for City Light. Without visual example, it is hard for us to compare them. The authors offer three ways to avoid overlap and enhance user understanding of the map: rotation, aperture and intrusion. I think these three ways are very good ideas when dealing with triangle problems. This paper also contains a user study. The valid experimental users are only 16. I don’t think this is enough for getting a precise conclusion. ========================= Paper 2: This paper discusses the UbiFit, a mobile persuasive technology that authors have developed to encourage individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity into everyday life and provides a three-month field experiment and it shows that participants appreciate the glanceable display and thought it is an essential component of the system. Systems can encourage self-monitoring and behavior change through the use of stylized representations of behavior and mobile phones. UbiFit is a typical example. It consists of three components including a glanceable display, an interactive application and a fitness device. To evaluate this system, a three-month field experiment that examined participants’ activities and experiences throughout the study both quantitatively and qualitatively. Choosing participants in this experiment is a good point in this paper. The portion of male and female is almost even and they have different types of jobs and amount of work-time. This difference shows that they can represent many kinds of users. So the result of this experiment is more convincing.

Xinyue Huang 2:08:01 10/20/2015

Wedge: Clutte-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations The researchers have proposed techniques that point users to objects located off-screen to overcome display limitations of small-screen devices. The paper presented Wedge, a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance, yet avoids overlap and clutter. Wedge represents each off-screen location using an acute isosceles triangle: the tip coincides with the off-screen locations, and the two corners are located on-screen. The paper first introduced some related work such as overview and detail views show the workspace in miniature, focus and context techniques, contextual views which are space-efficient fisheye views, and halo conveys location but not direction and distance. The paper then detailedly introduced the system Wedge. Each wedge offers three degrees of freedom. There are three goals for spending degrees of freedom. The first one is to avoid overlap, the second one is to maximize the location accuracy and the third one is to serve as an additional cue. The paper also introduced several wedge layout algorithms. The first one is intrusion which has three aspects: constant intrusion, shorter intrusion for longer distances and longer intrusion for longer distances. The second one is aperture, which is the angle separating the legs. The next one is corner. Another wedge layout algorithm is rotation, which is the primary means of avoiding wedge overlap. It is computed using a simple iterative algorithm which is computationally inexpensive and offers real-time performance for maps with up five overlapping wedges. The paper stated the experiment conditions from three aspects: visualization, density and position. It also set up several tasks to compare the results. The first task is to locate the off-screen location, which asked participants to click on the locations of the off-screen objects indicated by each wedge or halo on the screen. The second one is to avoid the traffic jam which asked participants to select one of three on-screen objects that was further from a set of off-screen objects. The task three is to find the closest restaurant which asked participants to select the closest off-screen object to an on-screen icon. After the experiment, the paper also introduced several recommendations for designers such as use wedge, reduce overlap, rotation is better than overlap, corners need special attention and striking a balance. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging awareness & Activity with personal, mobile displays Personal mobile displays are though ubiquitous yet underutilized. The paper presented results from a field experiment that investigated the effectiveness of these displays as a means for improving awareness of daily life. The paper designed a system called UbiFit and showed that participants who had awareness display were able to maintain physical activity level while the level of physical activity for participants who did not have an awareness display dropped significantly. The paper introduced some related work such as stylized display to encourage behavior change and mobile phone applications that encourage self-monitoring & increase of physical activity. For UbiFit system, it is a mobile, persuasive technology that have been developed to encourage individuals to self-monitor physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity into everyday life. UbiFit includes three components: a glance able display, an interactive application and a fitness device. The glanceable display is a stylized aesthetic image that resides on the background screen, or “wallpaper”, of the individual’s mobile phone. The interactive application runs on the individual’s mobile phone and is built using the framework, which is a scripting environment for mobile phones. Through the interactive application, the individual can view a daily list of activities performed today and any prior day. They can also add, edit, or delete activities for today and yesterday. They can view progress toward the weekly goals and add a comment to the daily activity list. To evaluate the effectiveness of mobile, they conducted a three-month field experiment throughout the study both quantitatively and qualitatively. The field experiment included three in-person sessions: full system, no fitness device and no glance display. The three conditions are used to help assess the impact of the glance able display and fitness device. To evaluate the results, they evaluate from different aspects such as effectiveness of the glance able display, the glanceable display vs. turkey, pie, and football, weight change over the winter holiday season, frequency and variety of activity, effect of other contextual variables and metaphors for the glanceable display. The work presented in the paper is novel and examined the use of a stylized, aesthetic representation of behavior on a personal, mobile display with the aim of encouraging self-monitoring and behavior change.

Jesse Davis 5:36:19 10/20/2015

Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays I found this paper to be extremely interesting and is a novel idea for the time it was created. Nowadays we have similar applications that have similar characteristics, but this application/study went about it in a manner that made it not only a computer science and health challenge, but also a psychological challenge, as most applications these days try to do as well. Rewards such as achievement points in video games have no real value to them, but many strive to earn them either to compare against others or to make themselves feel accomplished. I don’t discount this method, because it is incorporated into nearly every modern day game and I too strive for these achievements; it’s a nice addition to playing a game and the achievements can encourage different styles of play, just like the different types of flowers encourage different types of exercise. The idea of having it as a backdrop, and always accessible is very interesting to me and I think I might explore this more over the winter break. Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations Wedge targets the important of user interface by presenting off screen locations in a way that allows the user to view the map more legibly. They take into account design space (handheld device) and accuracy in order to create an interface that beats out the Halo application in overall design as displayed in the paper. Aside from the important of user interface analysis, I’m curious to see if Professor Wang mentions any additional topics that could be derived from this paper. I didn’t really find any flaws in the paper, and the way they wrote it was very organized and they utilized all of their statistics well and placed them in the appropriate sections; a nice and easy read.

Darshan Balakrishna Shetty 8:35:27 10/20/2015

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: The paper introduces to a new technique, wedge, for visualizing the off-screen locations. It discusses the existing techniques of CityLights and Halos, their drawbacks and focuses on how wedges are helpful to overcome these drawbacks. The paper also provides the perceptual theory behind this technique, explains using various degrees of freedom of a wedge for three goals: to avoid overlap, to maximize location accuracy and serve as an additional cue. The algorithm stated explains the various aspects covered by the technique. The user study gives the result that the technique of wedges was useful and accurate compared to its counterparts. However, the user study was not as significant to determine the expected accuracy. Therefore the user study should have included more participants and different level of tasks to be performed to clearly distinguish the results. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Flowers or a robot army?: encouraging awareness & activity with personal, mobile displays: This paper explains the usefulness of personal, mobile displays as awareness systems so as to improve our day-to-day experience. There have been a significant increase in the number of mobile screens and dynamic displays which can be used to enhance most part of our lives. The author has developed a system called UbiFit which allows individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate the activities in their everyday life. The author discusses the need of this application and then explain its components such as the glanceable display, the interactive application and the fitness device. The author has performed a thorough experiment over three months of the device's usage and produced the results in a various perspectives. They have also provided some unplanned results that occurred as a co-incidence and given its analysis. In conclusion, it talks about the arguments about the use of stylized, abstract representations of information on personal devices and the system, UbiFit that they built to depict the same. It provides a good motivation in the field of abstraction and representing everyday life into our devices. Also, the presentation of the results were impressive and helpful.

Kent W. Nixon 8:42:25 10/20/2015

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations This paper discussed the implementation and effectiveness of the Wedge system. Wedge is used on graphical displays of maps in order to indicate the direction and distance of off screen objects. The authors claim that it is similar to an existing method using circles called Halo, but that by using wedges instead of circles, more visual information is supplied to a user while also reducing onscreen clutter. The authors verify this by performing a study on 3 use cases: location estimation, target avoidance, and selection of closest. In all but the latter case, they find a statistically significant increase in task speed and preference when using Wedges as opposed to Halo. When discussing the degrees of freedom for a Wedge, the authors describe ideas such as beams and orbitals to define perceptual uncertainty. While the idea is novel, there does not seem to be any experimental data supporting it, or any relevant works cited, which bothered me a little bit. Their overlap avoidance algorithm is also fairly simplistic, but supposedly functions well enough for a prototype system to be created and used. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays This paper discussed the creation and use of a persistent personal activity monitor which would run in the background on a mobile device with a constant background indicator of current physical performance. The authors utilize the metaphor of a garden to represent physical activity as it is observed that while mobile devices are personal, they may not be private, and that some individuals may find self-monitoring of physical information to be embarrassing. The paper examines the effects (positive or otherwise) of utilizing such a system on a mobile device over the winter holidays, and finds that a continuous background display of physical activity does encourage users to remain active, and is also preferred in practice over a passive system. I found this paper to be very interesting, as although it is not related to my work/research area, I commonly utilize live wallpapers on my personal phone. A live wallpaper that changes in response to external events sounds like a very cool idea, and I would definitely use it. I also found it interesting that a suggestion that continuously was received by the authors was to use a stripper instead of a garden.

Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati 8:47:57 10/20/2015

Critique for Wedge In general, this paper introduced a new system that uses part of triangles to represent where is the target that are off screen. Since people have the instance to fill up the missing part of some certain shape, people can easily find out the target, which are located at the corner of the triangle, by fill up the part of the triangle. This is a very new idea and it looks better than Halo to represent the target that off screen. By using amodal completion, user can easily predict where are the target off screen since it is easy to recovery a shape of triangle by knowing most part of it. Since Halo use circles, it is hard to predict where is the center of it when the representation of the circle is very small part of the circle. Even though that this is a good idea, it still has problems. Since the line of the triangle are strong so that the corner area are big at the target. It makes the prediction be less accurate. Also there are overlap problems that influence people judgment about where should the target is. The author did some approach to solve the problems, which are doing rotation, aperture and intrusion of the triangle to avoid overlap and thinner beams (line), to make it more accurate. From the idea that the author point out, which is the amodal completion, we can pseudo expend the screen size. I think this idea can be used for the development of other software such as some statistic software that doing plot of data. User can see the detail of the diagram with indicators that can show where is the regression line or some data that are important off screen. I think it can help the users to analysis the data. Critique for Flowers or a Robot Army This paper talked about a new system that monitoring people’s actions to see how many times people paid on doing activity and tell people the result as an achievement of game. This system encouraged people to do exercises. This paper is important because it not only point out that adding gamification to activity monitoring system will bring people interests to do exercises, but also it conducted comprehensive experiment that proof the viewpoint. Doing exercises by self will be hard to achieve the goal of training since there are less innovation while they encounter painful feelings. The experiment pointed out it also. The amount of exercise people do is dropping constantly after days. Giving motivations to user is the best way to let them to finish the training. Ubifit gives a good solution. When people finish one section of exercise, there will be a flower showed in the virtual garden (mobile application). Different kinds of exercise will be represented by different kinds of flowers so that if people want to fill in the garden with different flowers, they should do different exercises. It is the goal of training so that people are motivated. This is why it can help people to keep training themselves. In this paper, the activity monitoring system is a separated device that people carried. It is in small size, but still looks be big from nowadays’ perspective. But since it is a research project, this size is good. There are some similar commercial products in this days’ market. But they are on very small size. Since these days, smart phone develop so fast, there are more sensors embedded in the phone so that I think in the future, mobile phone can do the job that the monitoring device did and this system can be simpler and easier to be set up for users.

Ankita Mohapatra 8:56:26 10/20/2015

Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays This paper introduced a system UbiFit, which intended to encourage people self-monitor their physical activity. The UbiFit have three characteristics glanceable display interactive application and fitness device. As for the glanceable display, the author use appealing designs to represent different level of goals achieved by the user, and the author make it a wall paper of the cell phone as a reminder. And the interactive aspect of the application makes the users able to make and edit plans, and view progress. And it was made into a mobile sensing device to detect the user`s activity and document them. And the paper also included user study about the system, which mainly concluded that the system can help prevent weight gain over holiday but do not have significant effect. The concept of using these three characteristics for physical activity tracking is used in several physical training products such as FuelBand and FitBit wireless activity tracker. Both of them have phone applications, which can document and track the activities and set goals. And there is also a big round shape design representing the amount of activity just like the glanceable display UbiFit system presented. This interface design is able to cover several kinds of users, since people gain their motivation in different way. And I am agree with the author`s interface design direction. And I can utilize the author`s interface design method in my future work. Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Location This paper introduced an off-screen location visualization technique called wedge and introduced the user study comparing it with existing layout algorithm halo. And proved that wedge is more accurate then halo. There are mainly three advantages of wedge offers three degrees of freedom in rotation aperture and intrusion while it point to location. And wedge avoids overlap, maximize the location accuracy and provide good distance cues. The Off-Screen technology halo, have already be used in many applications it was used in games and visualize 3D on mobile device. The example of wedge technology is to visualize traffic information of the map. In my opinion the off-screen technology is very useful because the limited screen size of mobile device can hardly cover enough areas on map in order to achieve enough information to get traffic information ahead. And if the wedge technology provide higher accuracy, it can be replace the existed halo algorithm and achieve a better performance.