Social Computing 1

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Vineet Raghu 20:01:35 11/4/2015

Groupware and Social Dynamics This article focuses upon groupware applications, and the support required to make these applications successful for both developers and users. The term groupware in this article refers to any software designed and used to support groups including videoconferencing, coauthoring applications, b-boards, and workflow systems. The major reason for challenges in group development is that the companies producing these groupware applications are the same companies that produced the single user applications, so the challenges posed by groupware apps are being encountered on the fly. Another interesting point is that at the time of the writing of this paper, groupware apps were projected to be abandoned within a few years, which is evidently not the case today. Next, the author lists eight specific challenges that developers of groupware apps must overcome, and some general, simple solutions for addressing these challenges. The eight challenges can be summarized as difficulties in having the product reach the intended audience successfully and quickly, difficulties in understanding and accommodating the users of the software, and difficulties in the designing and evaluation of the software itself. Finally, the author discusses a successful groupware application (email). He notes that email is successful because it addresses many of the challenges posed by the paper. Email is unstructured so it’s resilient to failure, it fits in perfectly with past social practices of regular postal mail, and it is useful enough that it is frequently used by many users. I think the article is spot on in most of its analyses at the time of writing. However, it’s interesting to note that many more groupware applications have become successful in the present day, such as Google office applications, and videoconferencing through Skype and Oovoo. They have addressed many of the challenges posed by this paper, as they are very well tailored to users, though I’m not sure that they have specifically attacked the workplace environment frequently mentioned by the paper. These applications are beneficial for the general public as well, for sharing and ease of communication across distance. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Beyond Being There This article discusses the ultimate goal of telecommunications research, which was typically to create a device that imitates being with a distant individual as closely as possible. The author here argues that this line of thinking will never result in a device worthy of being used in lieu of actually meeting a person, except in the case that meeting that person is impossible. Thus, with this line of thinking geographically distant people will always be at a disadvantage socially. To mitigate this, the author instead suggests that researchers should try instead of go beyond being with another individual. To further this point, the author suggests that instead of imitating the medium of physical reality, it’s better to look at what advantages a video interface has over the physical reality, and to build on these advantages. For example, a video interface can automatically archive conversations, and it can provide anonymous communication. Next the author provides some examples of computer-mediated communication that do not necessarily strive for the goal of imitating face-to-face communication, but still provide a successful communication service. The second example the author provides is of “computing personals,” and this pretty much exactly describes the successful social media applications of Facebook and LinkedIn well before they were developed for the public. In addition, the ephemeral interest groups section appears to be specific to a bulletin board, but the concepts describe how text messaging is so successful today. Communication need not be synchronous, and people that have incompatible free time can still communicate. Finally, the author addresses some potential critiques that readers may have with his approach. He mentions that obviously imitation is what users are used to, so this provides some immediate benefits. A similar issue is that cultural constraints will prevent these imaginative applications from being successful, but the author argues that a successful application can cause culture itself to change around it. In our current world, we see examples of this all of the time with social media, and the mobile phone industry, culture is now a byproduct of what it used to be and present technology. Overall, the author provides a very compelling argument as to the future of telecommunications research. Designing to go beyond being there gives much more flexibility in advancing the field forward, as it avoids the bottleneck of matching physical presence. The examples the author gave in 1992 are very relevant to real designed systems today which is a very impressive accomplishment.

Ameya Daphalapurkar 18:49:36 11/7/2015

The paper titled ‘BEYOND BEING THERE’ presents the problems in imitating face to face communication and also provides different alternative solution to tackle the problem. The author states the problem will persists as long as people keep using various media for face to face communication depending on the proximity. The author hence suggests to device a mode of communication sufficient and efficient enough to communicate in close distance communications. There are series of examples justified to prove the authors point. The ephemeral interest group is one such example. These are a form of bulletins that are temporary in nature and can be discarded after few hours. Another example is of computing profiles that help people find others with those of the similar interests amongst them. Author also proposes his thoughts on richness in face to face communication, but that doesn’t seem to proliferate much considering the existing state of technology. I would prefer if the paper would have been more specific on the ideas and more elaborate on the stated examples. ********************** The paper titled ‘GROUPWARE AND SOCIAL DYNAMICS’ basically is about the growth of groupware and about the various problems it faced after its genesis. A software allowing collaboration of users of some kind is termed as groupware. The challenges can be talked about as follows. The challenges it faced were related to single user system as well as those of groupware. The other main problem is the mass of users that end up using the software and how does it all fall in the piece. Problems in normal sessions are also not resolved by groupware the reason being that it might not be able to handle such environment and the employees won’t use it as well. The other challenge is that there is no way to guess upon the amount of usage it would shower, that is the system usability prediction doesn’t exist. There will also be need for larger integration onto the existing system. The point on which I do not agree is that author states the system to be not that intuitive. The technologies have vastly developed and now the ideologies nd conceptual thinking can flow easily and results can be made productive. Dropbox, Github, BitBucket are the examples which I feel are relatively mapped better to the systems and thus allow multiple users to work on same documents when shared amongst themselves.

Manali Shimpi 19:05:08 11/7/2015

BEYOND BEING THERE: The paper highlights problems with efficacy of imitating face-to-face communication and present an alternative proposal for grounding and motivating research and development that frames the issue in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. Creating systems with the same variety and richness of normal human interaction with no disadvantage of distance in large measure is a telecommunication problem. The telecommunications research orient us towards the construction of inefficient telecommunication tools but it also implicitly commits us to a general research direction of attempting to imitate one medium of communication with another. Author explains the communication in terms of needs, media and mechanisms. Needs are the human requirements that facilitates interaction. Media mediates communication and mechanisms are ways to meet informal communication needs that are enabled by a medium. In talking about going beyond face-to-face communication, author explains the needs in this kind of communication to be successful. These needs are clarity, feedback and archive. The author concludes that in future the concept of being there will be abolished rather than distance. -------------------------------------------------- Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers: The paper highlights the origins of groupware and describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group settings. Author says that a groupware application does not provide the same benefits to every group member. Groupware applications pose interface design challenges for developers. Groupware are useful only if it is used by all the members. The groupware development does not take into account the needs of all the users and expects consistency from users work habits. In the conclusion author suggests that it is easier to extend single-user applications to include groupware features which will reduce development barriers while granting familiarity with the system to existing users.

Adriano Maron 13:11:44 11/8/2015

Beyond Being There: This paper discusses about how to use technology to support communication between geographically distant entities. As an ultimate goal, the authors suggest that the solution for such communication problem should be capable of not only enable communication between distant people, but also to enhance the interactions between entities that are close to each other. To evaluate research efforts toward such telecommunication problem, a framework based on needs, media and mechanisms is provided so that solutions can be objectively evaluated under this aspects. However, the projects evaluated in the paper do not follow the proposed framework, and explicit characterization of such projects in terms of needs, media and mechanisms is not given. Despite not following their framework, this paper does talk about interesting concepts that can enable communication between distant people. For example, the subsection 'Meeting Others' resembles what Facebook represents to us today, while 'Ephemeral Interest Groups' are similar to discussion forums about various topics. However, those topics are proposed by related work, and the authors do not provide a strong contribution in terms of new solutions for the distant communication problem, nor use their framework in any significant way. =============================================== Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers: This chapter provides an interesting discussion about the importance and shortcomings of groupware software. Although mainstream today, such level of collaboration had to overcome several challenges for early adopters. Among the main challenges listed by the authors, 'Unobtrusive Accessibility' and 'The Adoption Process' are, in my opinion, the most critical aspects of collaboration-based systems. Users initially resist to adopt technologies that require new knowledge or new processes, so in order to be successful, groupware systems need to blend into the routine of a group. The concerns raised in this chapter are still relevant nowadays, given the variety of systems for groupware available today. Many of those still do not successfully address the shortcomings mentioned in this chapter, indicating that, despite being an old topic, there is still a lot of work to be done in terms of intuitive, relevant tools for collaborative work.

Ankita Mohapatra 17:48:03 11/8/2015

Reading Critique on Beyond being there: The first paper mainly talks about face-to-face communication. The authors argue that this is not enough. They say we could do better given the current technologies (of the time). The authors wanted the idea of “beyond being there”, where we use the technology to make the experience better than being there. Through the use of archival and other easily implementable objects, we can make the interaction better than a face to face conversation, and even make it preferred. This is a major idea since we are now expecting technology to make what we do easier and better. It is supposed to be one of the most efficacious forms of communication, and much research tries to reproduce it digitally. In this paper, projects are presented that are difficult to solve with face-to-face communication. Traditionally, telecommunications systems try to bring the sense being there to its users. Social presence and information richness are two metrics that can measure how well a system brings the sense of being there. If given a choice, users would prefer face-to-face over most communication systems that attempt to reproduce this. Interestingly, email, which is not face-to-face, is commonly sent among people in the same room. Ephemeral interest groups create a short-lived discussion to be attached to any object in a community's electronic space. They are useful for getting to know people without worrying about whether or not schedules match up. Meeting others is another method. They create computing personals. It is a more efficient way of providing information about a user then face-to-face. Anonymity is one characteristic that is difficult to achieve with face-to-face. I find the idea discussed in the paper is what we think about social network today. The popularity of social network measured by large number of social networks, provide different mechanisms for telecommunication both syn and async for huge amount of people online, has shown the “beyond being there” spirit in this paper. ========== ====================================================Reading Critique on Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers: The second paper mainly talks about the understanding of groupware and eight problems that we meet when developing. The concept of groupware provides the platform where developers begin to develop software to support group rather than individuals. There is a payoff between systems for groups and systems for individual, which is called the groupware. The paper also introduces the CSCW, the computer supported coordinate work. So the design challenge of the groupware is that besides individuals who are using the system, it also involves group problems. The authors discuss that the following issues present problems for developers: disparity in work and benefit, critical mass and Prisoner's dilemma problems, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty of evaluation, failure of intuition, and the adoption process. Among these, the most difficult to solve in my opinion and disparity in work and benefit and difficulty of evaluation. Disparity of work and benefit relates to the fact that different users receive different benefits from the same application. Because these applications are developed for such widely different individuals, it is a necessary result that some users will be better served than others. Another major problem is that there are not yet any effective techniques for measuring the performance of a groupware application. While a single user application can usually be fully tested by a user in under an hour, a groupware application would often require tests lasting multiple weeks for group interactions to unfold. It is also difficult to generalize results, as the group using a groupware application can often have more effect on the performance than the application itself. A highly motivated group will often still be able to achieve positive results with a bad product.

Long Nguyen 20:34:40 11/8/2015

Read on "BEYOND BEING THERE": The paper presents an idea about future technology in telecommunication, which can help people to communicate better over long distance (not physically close to each other). Authors give out some viewpoint in design and technology, making non-face-to-face communication as close to “being there” as possible. It was written in 1992, and now we can see something close to author's illustration in applications over Internet, like Skype, where people can communication not only by voice but also video. I think it's important for some people to have much interaction as possible through long distance, like family, relative, close friend, however, it's not true for all situation. As talking to stranger, I prefer to keep myself totally anonymous first, to prevent any dangers might occur to me, and "being there" is not good in this situation; "being nowhere" could be something new research also. ---------------------------------Read on "Groupware and Social Dynamics": The paper mainly discusses about definition and understanding of groupware, which can help developers have a viewpoint to design differently than software for individual. The paper points out eight challenges when developing groupware, which includes: Disparity in work and benefit, critical mass and prisoner’s dilemma problems, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty of evaluation, failure of intuition, and adoption process. In conclusion, I think this paper is much more details than the first paper, and it has successfully presented the challenges for developing a specific type of applications.

Priyanka Walke 21:40:58 11/8/2015

Reading Critique on Beyond Being There This paper describes the concept that shifts the standard of maintaining the richness of supporting face to face communication when not shared to use the benefits of not being shared to create a new interaction that utilizes existing benefits of such communication and does not try to mimic physical interaction. As the name of the paper states ‘Beyond being there’, to a certain extent, it definitely sounds somewhat fascinating but then ends up wondering as to how far can one push the benefits of such an interaction. The main focus of the researchers was to create better communication channels in order to make it as good as the real one. Telecommunication was definitely a big thing that time and the use of audio/visual combination was thought as the best solution to imitate the face to face interaction. Hence the author introduced a new dimension of thought. As this paper was published in 1992, when this field was in its early stages and as one of the first papers it definitely helps in getting a new research dimension into focus. Moreover, in order to prove his point, the author discusses various types of prototypes that his team are working on and hence states many hypothesis as he planned to achieve from them. Important aspects of this paper being the one’s to create an open, anonymous social platform in order to utilize the benefits of an asynchronous platform along with time sharing thereby leading to user profiles so as to make informal interactions between people of matching interests much more easier and faster. Emails are one such best examples of such an existing technology which incorporates all the above mentioned benefits. Another important aspect is that the potential critiques of the methods also have been discussed along with their possible solutions. ================================================================= Reading Critique on Groupware and Social Dynamics This paper gives an in depth exploration of various challenges that have been faced along with the best practices followed while developing applications targeted for use by a group of people to better facilitate work on a common project. Even though this has been written in 1994, there is not much advancement in the groupware applications that have been commercially successful. The main reason behind that being that we still have not completely understood the concept of group dynamics and also that our natural and more instinctive mode of thinking is in terms of single UI’s. Groupware is still an uncovered area with lots of opportunities as it has been considered as the middle layer between the commercial level and the organizational level. Also there are numerous problems in developing such kind of applications namely, disparity in work and benefit, critical mass and prisoner’s dilemma problem, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty of evaluation, failure of intuition and the adoption process. This paper introduces us to the concept of social computing especially on creating group based commercial applications and also about the things to be kept in mind about their success. This paper also states some important points like how to decide the best technique in a natural environment that would make sure the success when the product is deployed. Another important point was that we often end up making applications for managers which in fact should be made to be used by all. Some of the problems that can be addressed here include the one of scheduling, where we should always remember that we should not make decisions on behalf of the people but should help them in their decision making. Since, there is always a tendency of change in our plans, automatic scheduling even though being convenient actually takes off the control which is the major problem here. Also providing degrees of freedom in order to overcome problems faced by speech based applications.

Samanvoy Panati 23:06:23 11/8/2015

Critique 1: Beyond Being There by Jim Hollan and Scott Stornetta This paper discusses about the telecommunication problem in 1992 and then discusses different approaches for finding the right way to solve it. The problem is about making distant communication as good as face-to-face communication. The author points out the research which dates back to 1898 where they assumed that the video interaction will be as good as the direct interaction. But they finally concluded that there is no solution which can replicate face-to-face communication. The author points out that a better way to solve this problem is to concentrate on the ‘communication’ part of telecommunication instead of ‘tele’ part. If the main aim is the imitation of the face-to-face communication, then the people will prefer the reality rather than imitation. The goal of the research should be enhancing the face-to-face communication by adding extra features to it. This requires tools that go beyond being there. The problem should be framed in the form of needs, media and mechanisms. Communication needs are the human requirements which facilitate interaction, media are the medium for communication and mechanisms are the ways to meet informal communication needs. This approach is illustrated using some on-going projects at different stages of development like ephemeral interest groups, meeting others, beyond face-to-face, anonymity and semi-synchronous discussions. These projects are explained clearly and are concluded with hypotheses. The author concluded by saying that in the future the current concept of being there will be abolished more than the concept of distance. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Critique 2: Groupware and social dynamics: Eight challenges for developers This paper discusses the concept of ‘groupware’ and the eight challenges of the groupware developers. The author points out the position of groupware in the entire software universe with the help of a figure. It is placed between single user applications and information systems that support organizations. Then, the author discusses about the eight challenges of software developers in developing groupware. He compares it with single–user applications and organization information systems. The author discusses first, about the problem of disparity between work and benefit. He gives out some examples like automatic meeting scheduling, computer-assisted management systems and digitized voice to illustrate that a groupware application doesn’t provide the same benefit to every group member. In the same way, he explains the other problems with interesting examples. He uses e-mail as an example of a successful media (also given in the previous paper) which combines conventions and communication. One other obvious problem is that a single-user application testing can be completed under an hour by a single user but a groupware application testing requires multiple weeks involving a group. Collaboration becomes an important factor in groupware as opposed to single-user applications.

Darshan Balakrishna Shetty 23:15:54 11/8/2015

Beyond Being There : This article discuss ways of improving communication mediums for people not physically next to each other. The authors make a strong argument that physical presence can not be easily substituted by high-fidelity media. It is the telecommunication technologies responsibility to provide systems capable of providing additional communication richness compared to face-to-face interactions. The authors continue by addressing many research efforts, up to the point of writing this paper, which have attempted to imitate physical presence of people. Those efforts involved mainly high fidelity audio/video media. However, most of them always fell short compared to actual physical presence. The authors argue that this unwanted outcome is not because of mistakes made in those research efforts, but due to the goals that they have initially set. In order to overcome this problem, tools need to be developed which human will prefer in every occasion. Such tools should consider needs, media and mechanisms that are not met/employed by physical presence. In conclusion, I feel that this paper has not contributed much to my current knowledge about communication systems. Even though a robust points are made by discussing inherent difficulties of substituting physical presence, no actual solution is proposed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Groupware and Social Dynamics: In a developer's activities, collaboration plays a major role. It is more than usual when people need to work in teams for completing a Computer Science Project. Therefore, groupware applications need to be employed for optimizing the collaboration levels among peers. However, this article states facts about groupware's challenges and shortcomings that usually make groupware not popular. The author of this article starts by presenting the boom experienced in groupware applications and jumping directly into the problems appearing in collaborative environments. Those problems come from different backgrounds and have to do with socio-political factors, habits, and disparity among participating groups. Moreover, technical challenges arise when groupware applications are exploited for project completion, which often fail to address every possible problematic situation. In conclusion, I believe that this paper has successfully presented the status of a specific type of applications and the challenges that arise during their development, user training and usage.

Zihao Zhao 23:40:29 11/8/2015

“Beyond Being There” is a overview paper about the “future” development of the telecommunication. The main point of the paper is that the design of the telecommunication system should not focus on the crutch-like tools and they can play a more important role in human life. That’s the shoe-like tools and it is indicates that the telecommunication systems in the “future” has the possibility to be preferred by human than physical conversations. In another words, a better way to solve the telecommunication problem is to focus on the communication part but not the tele part. Although the paper was written almost 20 years ago, it has a great foresight that the technology will develop greatly that the “tele” part will not be the bottom line to solve the telecommunication problem. The paper listed several examples at that time e.g email, there are also a lot of examples nowadays. There is a prevalent phenomenon that people are more likely to look at there smartphone while sitting with there friends. And this has incurred great debut whether the social network has make people closer or it has set people more apart? People are more likely to focus on there “virtual-social-network” while neglect their surrounding friends. From another angle of point we can see that the social network has largely influenced our life that we are more likely to use it to communicate while we are face-to-face with our friends.——————————————————————————————————————— The paper “Groupware and Social Dynamics” is a paper with great success which emphasized the importance to add groupware and social dynamics with computer techniques. And that’s the original idea of social computing. Group has strong information for us to conclude from and can support us with some important points. For example, we can use the GPS information of all the users of GPS-oriented users to compute the social behavior easily and to infer the flow of people which is hard to achieve by conventional computing. The author adds by suggesting that IS tends to be custom-written software built almost as a service while CSCW has struggled in part because of its different business models that has focused on off-the-shelf software. More importantly though, he points out that groupware has suffered in part because it has many of the problems that single-user applications suffer from in terms of usability issues, plus a whole set of new challenges introduced by the group-based nature of the tools. As the subtitle implies, his article focuses on eight of these problems.1)A work versus benefit disparity: Groupware systems often require work from people who do not benefit directly from them, for example, people adding data to a calendaring system so that the person doing the scheduling can benefit. 2)Critical mass and prisoner dilemma problems: Groupware cannot succeed unless a larger number of people use it at the same time and this creates a collective action problem. 3)Social, political and motivational issues: Groupware violate social and organization taboos or threaten political structures that existing in an organization. 4)Exception handled issues: Improvization and error handling common in organizations are not built into workflow based groupware systems. 5)Unobtrusive accessibility: Often the features that support group processes are not used frequently but must still be accessible enough to be used. 6)Difficult of evaluation: We have trouble learning from failed groupware projects do to a lack of evaluation routines. 7)Failure of intuition: Intuitions in current software development environments are often poorly suited the best actions in a groupware setting. 8)The adoption process: Introduction can require more care, planning, and effort that most software developers consider. There are a series of reoccurring possible solutions as well that Grudin suggests: 1 The biggest is to add groupware functionality to existing applications. 2 Find and exploit niches were groupware is already succeeding. 3 Build on top of existing, successful, Is projects. 4 Build systems so that they benefit all members. 5 Do a better job of educating managers and developers about groupware. 6 Build a better (sociological) understanding of the decision-making processes in organizations to help design groupware better.

Lei Zhao 0:05:07 11/9/2015

<Beyond being there> <Summary> Beyond telecommunication by creating being there awareness, there could be some other ways to have social communicate with people. This paper proposes different hypothesis of people’s intention about communication with each other <Paper Review> Among those hypothesis, I like anonymity. It says that anonymous exchanges will encourage people to discuss issues that they are reluctant to discuss. Actually, programmers have been developed an application called Bibi in China. In Bibi, people could write posts anonymously and people cannot know who send out the blog. This application satisfy some people’s need of anonymity. I also like the hypothesis that use of semisynchronous mechanisms will encourage a greater range of responses than the normal asynchronous or synchronous mechanisms. Sometimes, I cannot come up with appropriate words to express my thoughts in face-to-face communication. If the communication could be semisynchronous, it could offer people more time to think about their words without embarrassing, which could happen in face-to-face communication. I think most today’s social networking application is semisynchronous, such as facebook, weibo and twitter. People could have a synchronous chat and also asynchronous post replying comments to other people’s post. <Eight challenges for developers> <Summary> This article briefly outlines the origins of groupware, describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group settings. <Paper Review> Software universe has been categorized into three class based on the number of users. They are organization software, group software and individual software. Groupware targets smaller groups than systems serving organizational goals. Management is less committed to the less expensive groupware applications or features. Group-aware applications know that they are being used by a group and accept inputs from multiple sources. Obviously such programs need to designed with groupware in mind and usually come as part of a groupware system. Group-aware programs may run either at a single machine, with inputs and results collected from multiple sites, or there can be a copy running on each machine in the group with only relevant commands (for a particular site) sent to a site. So there comes the problem that it is more difficult to implement than individual software. Some groupware applications are Lotus Notes, Collabra Share and Iphone (Internet Phone).

Matthew Barren 0:46:48 11/9/2015

Summary of Beyond Being There: Hollan and Stornetta consider the failures of electronic mediums for communication. They propose a new system by reviewing the primitive qualities individual’s prefer when interfacing. The authors of Beyond Being There take a refreshed look at how communication can be achieved from remote locations. There ideas are particularly interesting because they take several steps back to examine human needs for successful communication. Some of the needs that other researchers have found to be positive effects are being reminded of a need to talk, turn taking, and stylized openings. Additionally, there are several mechanisms that are important for communication such as eye contact and body posture. Another, less obvious note, is that the medium cannot directly imitate communication. If it does, this allows it to be scrutinized, and inherently an imitation will be weaker than the actual communication method. Overall, this 1992 paper proposes many ideas that people cherish about social media. Consider the topic of ephemeral interest groups. These are quickly created, quickly destroyed short bulletins that individuals can post and discuss among colleagues. The idea is that there is a lost cost to entering into the conversation, and it provides a potential for people to communicate asynchronously and from remote locations. This very idea is the basis of twitter and reddit. For these two forms of social media, anyone can enter the discussion and leave the discussion at any time. Additionally, there is an archive of the progress of the discussion. Computing personals is another example of a concept that is widely used today. For this idea, users would have a personal page that they can highlight various traits and interests, and colleagues can look at their personal pages. This is the basis of Facebook, MySpace, and Friendster. Today, we have expanded our abilities of remote communication to other media forms, such as short videos or pictures (Vine and Instagram). Summary of Groupware and Social Dynamics: Groupware and Social Dynamics examine the integration of new technology applications in a company, and the challenges that arise to gain employee acceptance. The authors note 7 challenges to assimilating to these new products. A key set of challenges comes from the prisoner’s dilemma of groupware. Individuals must perceive a personal benefit of using the particular software; otherwise, the implementation and use of the product will suffer. As the authors note, there will be little to no benefit if a majority of the staff does not find use for the software. This can be seen in many different facets. A common problem of ERP systems is the overhauling complexity it takes to understand the features and how to access them. In trying to provide an immense number of features, many users find the knowledge gap to be daunting, and thus, will continue to use traditional methods to get work completed. In this case, there are usually gaps between what is presented in the ERP, and what is actually occurring outside of the application. Additionally, standardization is usually explicitly written, but in most cases, individuals use ad hoc systems, which can present an opportunity for misunderstandings. Again, this is commonly seen in ERPs. For example, one group may use a particular standard of units for their data entry, while another group may use another set of units. When translating between two sets, it may be confusing to understand the differences between the values entered. As well, there is often a need to design for many features. Many of these features have the potential to be infrequently used, but still may be necessary for particular groups within the organization. These additional features can make the system more complex to navigate because inevitably it results in more options that may be unclear to particular users. Finally, the key to integration of groupware is employee buy-in. This comes from training, guidance, and clarity of how this produces a greater connectedness in the organization. In order for this to occur, managers must be well informed to facilitate the transition for employees to understand the application to the greatest degree necessary. If this is neglected, the groupware is doomed to failure and a lack of standard practices.

Xinyue Huang 1:23:02 11/9/2015

Beyond being there The paper introduced some problems highlighted with the presupposition of the belief in efficacy of imitating face-to-face communication. It also presented an alternative proposal for grounding and motivating research and development that frames the issue in terms of needs, media, and mechanism. The paper first introduced that researchers solved the telecommunication problem by creating a sense of being there, by establishing some form of audio and video connections between two distant locations. To measure progress towards the direct face-to-face part of this goal, social psychologists have evolved measures of social presence, and information richness to estimate how closely telecommunication tools capture the essence of face-to-face communication. The author also pointed that telecommunications research seems to work under the implicit assumption that there is a natural and perfect state and that our state is in some sense broken when we are not physically proximate. For beyond being there, the author first framed human communication in terms of needs, media, and mechanism. Media are simply what mediates communication. For face-to-face interactions the media is physically proximate reality. Mechanism are ways to meet informal communication needs that are enabled by a medium. While needs are media independent, mechanisms are closely, perhaps inextricably connected to specific media. The framework of needs, media, and mechanisms also suggests a way to achieve a level of performance for communication tools that goes beyond being there. The paper presented several examples. The first one is ephemeral interest groups. The idea of an ephemeral interest group is to create a mechanism that allows a typically short-lived discussion to be attached to any object in a community’s electronic “space”. Meeting others is to provide a form of what one might call computing personals in which people would have the opportunity to compose structured profiles describing themselves and allow those profiles to enter into negotiation with other profiles one the net to attempt to locate other people that they might be interested in meeting. Groupware and social dynamics The article briefly outlines the origins of groupware, describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group settings. Desktop conferencing, videoconferencing, coauthoring features and applications, email and bulletin boards (b-boards), meeting support systems, voice applications, workflow systems, and group calendars are key examples of groupware. The purchasers of a highly visible, expensive mainframe system or application anticipate a substantial benefit. They know organizational change is likely. Upper management is thus likely to commit to helping the system succeed, through job redesign and creation and providing training in order to increase system acceptance, and restructuring to work around important individuals who will not use the system, and positive leadership through inspiration or example. There are also some new problems. Because individuals interact with a groupware application, it has all the interface design challenges of single-user applications, supplemented by a host of new challenges arising from its direct involvement in group processes. A groupware application never provides precisely the same benefits to every group member. Costs and benefits depend on preferences, prior experience, roles, and assignments. Although a groupware application is expected to provide a collaboratie benefit, some people must adjust more than others. Another problem is critical mass and prisoner’s dilemma problems. This means that most groupware is only useful if a high percentage of group members use it. Different individuals may choose to use different word processors but two coauthors must agree to use the same coauthoring tool.

Zinan Zhang 3:07:47 11/9/2015

For beyond being there-------------------- In the paper, the author mainly intends to illustrate an idea: what is beyond being there and how. Firstly, he explain the idea of “being there”, which means that people from far away can communicate with each other as if they were just face to face. So the idea of beyond being there is easy to understand, which is that people can communicate with each other more than looks as if they were face to face. However, by the end of the paper, the author draws a conclusion that the future is more like being there rather than beyond being there. The paper is established on 1992, which is a time that computer and Internet were just beginning. It is really hard for people in that time to imagine what the world will be in fifteen years later. Now, it is 2015. With the different kinds of advanced technology, people can easily make the “being there” come true. With the help of the Internet, people from anywhere of the world can get in touch and communicate face to face. For example, by the application Skype on the computer, I can talk with my mother face to face, although I am in the United States and she is on the opposite of the earth. We are at a distance of thousands of miles, but I can see her and listen to her when communicate with her. And she can see me and listen to me as well at real time. It looks like I was not far from her. It looks real and authentic. I think that can be called “being there” by the author. However, even the “beyond there” can be realized now I think. They way to make it true is by the technique called Holography. By using several cameras to gather the image from different angle and then projecting the image from different angle, the object that being captured can be projected in a 3D model, which looks like the real object is just in front of your eyes. If using this technology on communicating, people can talks with each other really face to face. They can see the other speaker’s movements and facial expressing, listen to the voice and play virtual games with the other speaker. They can talk with each other as if in real world except for one thins: they do not have the feeling of touching. Maybe some day in the future, people can use a kind of machine imitate the feeling of touching, such as hurt or press. When that comes true, the “beyond being there” truly comes true. ============================================== For eight challenges for developers---------------------- This paper talks about the origins of groupware, describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group-settings. Successes exist, but the progress is slow and can lead in unanticipated directions. Among the eight challenges, the disparity between who does the work and who gets the benefit is really a hard problem. Just like what mentioned in the paper, a groupware application never provides precisely the same benefit to every group member. Everyone in this group has to participate the program. Someone devotes more to the program and someone devotes less. However, it doesn’t mean that devote is equal to paid. It is unfair for those people who works much for the program but get less than those people contribute less to the program. But for accomplishing the task, some people have to sacrifice themselves inevitably.

Sudeepthi Manukonda 4:30:01 11/9/2015

"Beyond Being There” by Jim Hollan and Scott Stornetta is an interesting paper which gives an alternative perspective to the conventional way of thinking that imitating face-to-face communication is an unquestioned presupposition of most current work on supporting communications in electronic media. Face-to-face communication is by far the best means of communication and it forms the basis to any development or idea related to computer interaction. Achieving face to face communication is one of the aims of any technology developed in relation to human computer interaction. Offering the same richness and variety is one of the important points. Accomplishing this is something that needs to be given a lot of thought to. To measure the relativity between the reality and the implementation, social psychologists have evolved measures of social presence and information richness. Creating a solution to the problem of replicating the face-to-face communications is very complex. Many efforts are made and are still developing. The best way to know whether the software is successful or not is is by checking whether the user wants to use the tools even when they are close by. And creating such tools needs proper framing of the problem, identifying requirements and needs. ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————— “Groupware and social dynamics: Eight challenges for developers” by Jonathan Grudin talks about why the groupware applications fail, also what had led to its success and also social, individual and technological issues for groupware calendar systems. Groupware are the applications that support interaction within groups of two or more people. The paper also talks about the differences between single user application, groupware application and large information system. Single user application supports individuals, groupware supports groups and the latter supports organisations. The eight challenges for developers are work-benefit- disparity, gaining critical mass, social, political and motivational factors, exception handing in workshops, designing for infrequently used features, evaluation difficulties, breakdown of intuitive decision-making and acceptance managing. A groupware application rarely provides the same benefit to every group member. A person scheduling a meeting specifies a distribution list and the system finds a time that is convenient for all. Most groupware is only useful if a high percentage of group member use it. Actions of group members are guided by social conventions and awareness of personalities and unspoken priorities of other people. Improvisation and wide range and exception handling are characteristic of human activity. Multi-user application’s success is affected also by the backgrounds of personalities of other group members. Decision to develop unworkable groupware application are frequent. Groupware is very sensitive to aspects of its introduction.

Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati 8:51:17 11/9/2015

Critique for Beyond Being There In general, this paper talked about imitating face-to-face communication, its limitation and also author’s new approach to do communication. The paper detailed show why imitating face-to-face communication has its limitation and why the author’s idea is advanced. To my understanding, I think this paper is important for the area of telecommunication. It is because that it not only concerning about user’s feeling of communication, but also point out the limitation of imitating face-to-face communication and author’s solution. The original approach tried to achieve the face-to-face communication by establish audio and video communication in distant location. This approach cannot bring user the physical feeling of communication. The author’s approach is trying to bring physical interaction into the communication. The author gave a very comprehensive reasoning. I think this is a good idea. Even though the author introduced this method to make more physical communication on distant communication, I still think that it cannot be same with the real face-to-face communication. There is more room to grow for the research in this area. I got an idea that telecommunication is not only depends on the method of communication, but also the environment of communication. People like to communicate on Facebook with only text-based communication. It is because that Facebook gave people the environment of find people to talk with. Critique for groupware and social dynamics This paper mainly introduced what is groupware and what is social dynamics. The author use detailed analysis to help reader understand the concept. What is groupware, it is an idea that connect user’s computer on the web to do computation. It utilized the free resource on the web to do fast computation. This article talked about the origins of it and also some problems that need to be solved. It appeared in mid-1980s, and there are some problems for it, like it will be useful if a lot of people use it. But this is hard so that it will be hard to start. Also it may lead to violation of social rules and even laws since it is hard to be controlled. Furthermore, it is hard to evaluation since it have huge groups. It makes the evaluation hard to conduct so that developers need to have skills on doing it. In general, if we can solve these problems, I think groupware will become the top in the research of computer science. Based on my experience, I think I used to be benefit from groupware, and I think most people have it too. There are a lot of video steaming website that use technology that looks very similar with groupware, sharing video from one client software to another, since a lot of clients share it with you. The speed of connection may hit the top of your web connecting speed so that you can get a great feeling on watching video. Also some downloading tools using similar technology, which share data with others. This is great on downloading but it may against the laws like download illegal music and video by others may use your computer to speed up. Even though that it have the limitation. But still, I think it benefit us a lot , and l think it will benefit more in the future.

Kent W. Nixon 8:58:59 11/9/2015

Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers This paper discusses the main challenges involved with designing software that is meant to be used by groups of people. The author distinguishes this from two other types of applications targets, individuals and organizations. Applications that are meant for individuals only have to focus on maximizing productivity for the single user that operates them, while applications that target organization-level use can be extremely complex yet still rely on being used as an organization will generally invest time, money, and personnel into getting a new application to work if it is deemed worthwhile. Groupware, on the other hand, needs to focus on benefit everyone in a group of users while minimizing the overhead work they need to put forth to use the software, as unlike organizations, small groups of people will not be willing to go through rigorous training in order to learn how to use new software – they will simply ignore it and stick with their old tools. The authors divide the challenges related to groupware into 8 main groups. Those being: minimizing disparity in work and benefit for all users of an application, ensuring critical mass (the minimium percentage of people in a group which must use an application before others who were reluctant to learn the tool will acknowledge its benefits), avoiding disruption of social or cultural processes, effectively handling exceptions to the expected use cases and patterns, maintaining access to advanced features while minimizing layout clutter, effective evaluation of design choices for later design revisions, defining how a group will intuitively seek to utilize an applications, and understanding the adoption process of the software by a target group. I found this paper to be particularly interesting because it effectively describes many of the collaboration tools which are just emerging today. For example, it wasn’t until recently that group VOIP calls (Skype) have become popular outside of mandated corporate group calls. From experience (and from the logic outlined in the paper), this is a result not of the underlying technology improving, but that the design and interface of the application has finally been perfected to the point where it requires minimal effort from any individual in a group and is fairly intuitive. This article also explains why multiplayer gaming (or gaming in general) is more popular on dedicated, easier-to-use consoles than on PC. Beyond Being There This paper discusses the current design approach to telecommunication systems. In general, it is seen that the goal of any telecommunication system is to provide the same social and cooperative opportunities to a user that is distance from his/her peers as would be enjoyed by an individual which is co-located. This approach is criticized by the author, being described a viewing telecommunications as a crutch instead of a pair of running shoes. The authors suggest instead that the design of telecommunication systems be approached in a way that seeks to create a system of communication that is superior and preferred to face-to-face conversation. This may be accomplished by evaluating the inherent limitations of face-to-face communication (difficulty of archival, setup overhead, etc.), and designing a system whose media and mechanisms avoid that inherent problem. The authors believe that an indicator of whether or not design of such a system has been effective is whether or not users will choose to use it, even when the option of face-to-face is present. This paper forwarded a very interesting set of ideas and tools of analysis. At one point, I believe the author described research on what could be considered prototype social media networks. By the author’s own description, it can be considered that texting from mobile devices has improved upon the limitations of voice calling, in that it is fast, asynchronous, and easily archived.