Ubiquitous Computing

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slides

Readings


Ubicomp Demo Video By Mark Weiser

Reading Critiques

Zihao Zhao 14:43:27 10/1/2015

Starting with the famous sentence, “the most profound technologies are those that disappear”, “The Computer for the 21st Century” was published in 1991 and it correctly forecast the development in the 21st century about the interfaces of computers. The development way of the 21st’s computer will take into account the human world and allows the computers themselves to be ubiquitous and vanish into the background which human can not even notice them. The means that disappearance is a consequence of human psychology rather than technology improvement, which means invisibility doesn’t represent vanish of device, and does represent vanish of complex steps to achieve the goal on using the device.There are 3 types of prototypes the author suggested as the components of embodied virtuality, tab, pad, and board, which were characterized by its display size. And there well correspond with the development of the computers today or even more in the extreme. We not only have pads and tabs, but we also have the smartphones which push the ubiquitous computing into a extreme and better demonstrate the “vanishing” of the computers. As we may neglect, smartphone take a great user computer interaction in today’s life, we face time with a smartphone sometimes will neglect the computing of the small CPU inside it. The author categorized the components by its size of screen. However, in my point of view, they can be categorized by its ownership, personal and infrastructural devices. Personal handheld devices including laptops and net-books had succeed greatly. Recently, with iPhone’s lead, smart phone market was grown significantly. Including iPad, a note-sized tablet device which Apple has recently released, the personal owned devices are improved fast and seemed to be enough to realize the environment which M. Weiser mentioned.—————————————————————————————————— “Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing” tells us there are three interaction schemes that resulted from the proliferation of ubiquitous computing, namely, natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. The authors put forward a new area of research called everyday computing. There are many issues in ubiquitous computing such as privacy, security, visibility, and control but there doesn’t seem to be a one that stands out worthy of focus, but certainly the three main issues that need to be addressed are physical space, people, and time.With the pioneering work of PARC researchers, we see firsthand the importance of incorporating technology into our lives without being intrusive. When designing an input mechanism, for instance, like mouse or pen, we need to focus on implicit user input to minimize distraction from user tasks. There should be more research done in technology that recognizes handwriting, that is, in order to eliminate or reduce errors. Another effort that must be made is to know or discover when errors occur. With the advance of ubiquitous computing, we have to sacrifice some thing like the privacy. There are a lot of leaking for the privacy these days with the ubiquitous of cloud computing, some people lost there privacy by losing their private photos which had been uploaded into the cloud. Moreover, the social network is a way that we leak our privacy. With the weiblogs, we might know many new things and we can share interesting things with our friends. However, in the mean time, we have post our location and actions onto the internet.

Adriano Maron 16:13:30 10/3/2015

The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper describes use cases of different type of computers that differ from the traditional desktop design and harness the potential of ubiquitous computing. The author describe the different devices (tabs, pads and boards) used at Xerox PARC for assisting with daily tasks, such as taking notes and sharing information. The main point made by the author is that ubiquitous devices will eventually blend themselves into our daily routine to the point where we will not realize they are at our disposal. This is a very superficial example of how devices could be integrated in our routine, but it does not provide any insights about technical challenges, research directions or other applications of ubiquitous computing. Although the concept is interesting, many challenges must be addressed in order to make such systems usable and reliable. ============================================ Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This paper provides a survey about the research advances in ubiquitous computing, focusing on the themes of natural-interfaces, context-aware computing and automated capture and access to information. Furthermore, the authors provide insights about the future of research in ubiquitous computing, including a new theme focused on the everyday computing. Such theme states that ubiquitous computing would play an important role in assisting in our everyday life, instead of in only specific activities. Moving ubiquitous systems from domain specific scenarios to continuous events in our daily life poses many challenges in terms of user interaction, physical distribution of resources and interpretation of continuous activities. Given the diversity, and sometimes unavailability, of displays, user interaction must occur though more natural means, such as voice and gesture, instead of the traditional mouse/keyboard combination. In order to encourage the development of applications that leverage natural inputs, it is necessary to provide toolkits that standardize the way developers represent and process data from such inputs. A second challenge of natural inputs deals with the likelihood of errors in the human-computer interaction and how to tolerate and recover from such errors. Ubiquitous computing relies on contextual information to assist users in many tasks. Such context may be built from widespread sensors, as well from information from other contextual services. Although a context can be inferred using multiple inputs, the "five W's" provide a solid guideline for defining a context: Who, What, Where, When and Why. In oder to provide context, it is necessary to capture and store the raw information about the users and their environments through different types of sensing/input technologies, requiring passive/active user interaction. When integrating the ubiquitous computing into our everyday life, challenges about continuous interaction/visualization interfaces need to be tacked. Also, the evaluation of such systems still lacks of a standardized methodology, creating obstacles and inconsistencies when assessing the usefulness of given solution.

Matthew Barren 20:44:30 10/3/2015

Summary of Computer for the 21st Century: “All say, in essence, that only when things disappear in this way are we freed to use them without thinking and so to focus beyond them on new goals” - Mark Weiser. Mark Weiser’s approach is to deliver the opposite of developing a computer to complete user tasks. Instead his approach is to examine how do we complete tasks best, and then how can a processing device be designed to perform this task in a similar way and with greater efficacy. Computers have greatly moved towards this vision. Consider the goal of compiling and analyzing data. A user knows that if they have this data they can access Microsoft Excel to organize and evaluate the data. From the millennial generation, use of computer input devices is second nature. The computer has become an extension of our capacity as a human being. Further considering the Excel example, the user does not think, “I need to tap this cell and type this number here”. Rather an emerging Excel user knows to tap the enter key on the keyboard, continue typing the next line, and tap enter again. The use of this has become so simple because of the second nature of these input devices. Users develop an unconscious framework to complete the primitive tasks to reach a particular goal. Now consider the data analyst wanting to perform an operation that they are vaguely familiar with. The computer continues to extend the user’s capacity because the information they are uncertain of can be found with a few clicks and a query to Google. The goal can now be achieved, and the user has continued to broaden their knowledge of the application. In further considering this example, a computer can be analogous to a toolbox. Users access a computer to grab a tool(s) from the box and perform operations to complete their goals. Like tools, overtime users do not have to think about how a hammer is swung or a screwdriver is twisted, rather the focus becomes the task and the desired output. The same principles that have made traditional input devices and conceptual mappings to new technologies successful are applicable to Mark Weiser’s ideas of using ubiquitous computing to revolutionize the way humans interact with computers. Weiser postulates an environment where processing is done on varying scales of objects, pads, tabs and boards. He develops this idea of a workplace where pads and boards are ownerless objects that can be accessed by anyone at any moment. Although not as elegant as Weiser’s description, many schools and universities provide the idea of ownerless computing to provide greater access. Continuing with Weiser’s idea for a revolutionized workspace, he suggests that pads can be integrated into a user’s desk to replace the tasks that people perform on paper and in doing so, provide a greater efficiency to accessing tasks. He imagines an individual having multiple pads with multiple tasks occurring at once. To extend this idea, consider the restrictions of the size of a pad screen. Current pads, have borders surrounding the screen too. To add to the functionality of pads, a borderless screen and additional software complexity would allow a user to place two or more pads side by side to provide a larger interface when needed. When the user wants to disaggregate the interface, the user could remove the adjacent connection of the pads. Additionally, the board idea allows for a greater ability to telecommunicate on large projects. One board in Palo Alto could be the same display as a board in London. Users could actively speak with one another, and manipulate the board in unison. This would bridge a large gap in the restrictions of telecommunication. Summary of Charting Past, Present, and Future of Ubiquitous Computing: The authors goal is to research how computing technology can be shaped to facilitate human tasks in a natural manner while using everyday computing to learn about the user. This learning aspect is used to provide explicit and implicit dynamic alterations to the computing system. In reviewing this article, it is interesting to see some of the pieces of technology that are making steps in the direction of everyday computing. Consider Google maps, the manner in which they route an individual to their destination. In this instance, there is a shared context among devices to provide real time traffic data. Rather than examining the context of the user, this application examines the context of an environment the user is about to enter, and then provides suggestions to best guide the user in this environment. Everyday computing provides a framework for many potential devices or new uses for existing devices to augment user functionality in a real or virtual environment. Consider context fusion, the idea of using multiple inputs to develop a better understanding of the user's state. One obvious benefit of fusing multiple sources is a means of mitigating risk by validating across different information streams. Another potential benefit is the reuse of captured information. Suppose a team has video, audio, and writing capture during their meetings. The inception, planning, and implementation of a particular design could be captured and stored to revisit later. This touches on the idea suggested of keeping a record of construction to better assess potential maintenance and repair issues. Additionally, a product is not developed in a day, and the context of yesterday is frequently lost during the hiatus between one day and the next. Imagine a system that could provide a brief recap of highlights discussed, in a video, audio, and text format to give a full contextual jolt back to the ending of the previous day. This type of system could close the barrier of lag caused by starting and restarting a project. In thinking more critically about the methodology to create everyday computing systems that provide a natural interface, there is a piece of context that is left out in this paper. Computers have enveloped many of the tasks that were once manually completed. In doing this, individuals now interact with a computer in order to complete those tasks. To some degree, the design of using a computer for the device may have not been the best interface for completing the task. That being said, the computer is the device that is used, and the natural use has been lost. In some sense, designers should reconsider the way some manual tasks were completed to see if this historical information could provide a gateway to developing a better piece of everyday computing.

Vineet Raghu 21:01:43 10/3/2015

Charting the Past, Present, and Future for Ubiquitous Computing The article here presents the current state of the art in ubiquitous computing, and explains the design challenges facing researchers in this field, as they move towards the future. The article mentions three overarching themes that need to be addressed which include: natural interfaces that allow for natural communication between humans and computers instead of specialized language, context-aware applications that align their behavior to the particular environment, and capture and access of live experiences. The author notes that two issues are critical for natural interfaces, and these included error recognition and natural data types. Natural data types provide a convenient way of programming applications through user input that is standard in presently nonstandard ways, such as an API for freeform ink drawings. The other issue is the error recognition process, which may not be completely fixable, and instead programmers need to instead be able to adjust when errors are made (be error aware). For the future, the authors envisions ubiquitous computing developing into the more appropriate term of everyday computing. However, this form of computing also had design issues as noted by the authors. There is no clear beginning or end to daily activities, so the computation needs to be aware of when to make itself relevant. Likewise, many activities could be occurring simultaneously with differing importance at different times of the day. With these principles in mind, the author species a few directions for the future such as continually worn interfaces, connecting events in the physical world with the computer world, and modifying traditional HCI research and evaluation methods to match the differences everyday computing presents. It’s interesting that the author here has presented some ideas that have really taken off in the consumer world, though not exactly as described here. Computation is definitely moving in the direction of everyday computing, with smart phone, iWatches, and internet of things. However, we still have not really come close to the point of having computing complement all activities in various devices, we still largely rely upon laptops and smart phones for the large majority of our computation, though perhaps this will change in the near future. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Computer for the 21st Century The author here describes what he perceives to be the future of computing in personal environments. Specifically, he believes that computers will eventually become part of our everyday environment, but invisible to us, much like written text is embedded in almost every material possession that we have. The first milestone that he says needs to be reached is having “hundreds of computers” per room. He explains that this concept isn’t as strange as it may sound, likening computers to writing surfaces now, or wires behind the walls of our house. Furthermore, these computers will stem from three different types of machines, tabs (small devices that can attach to household items), pads (larger surfaces that can be used and disposed as needed like a piece of paper), and boards (large screens for big displays). For all of this to be possible, the author states that three aspects of computing technology need to be met, cheap low-power computers with convenient displays, a network that ties them all together, and software systems implementing ubiquitous applications. In today’s world, it appears that we have the capability to move in this direction; however, we haven’t really focused on these goals so cheap low-power computers of varying sizes are not being presently produced, and a network for such a large number of a devices is not typically available for the common consumer. The author concludes by describing some of the potential issues and benefits with this future of computing. First is a security issue in that having a multitude of devices connected to the internet with potentially private information could pose a serious security risk. One researcher’s idea to mitigate this problem is to treat internet security as we do regular security in that information can be potentially vulnerable, but it is exceedingly difficult to steal the vulnerable information without leaving a digital fingerprint to be caught from. He claims that these will be outweighed by the benefits, such as an increase in human interaction from computers being “invisible” within our environment. In addition, information will be readily available for all types of applications in all settings. Again, it’s interesting to note that the authors projected this future much sooner than has actually happened. Apart from mobile computing and the forthcoming of internet of things, computers have not really found their way into all aspects of the environment. We are still for the near future largely limited to laptop, tablet, and smart phone computing in the present day.

Ameya Daphalapurkar 23:15:12 10/3/2015

The paper titled ‘Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing’ focuses specifically on the research in Ubiquitous Computing. It talks about how the interaction themes of natural interfaces, context aware applications, automated capture and access have been pushed. Also describes how pushing away causes the shift of constant companions from that of locality. Weiser introduced the vision of people and environments augmented with information providing resources. Another vision being leveraging off devices that would emerge. Paper also explores how the perspective evolution of applications takes place. The main challenges and accomplishments being the richer variety of communication capabilities between and computations in natural interfaces, context aware applications, automated capturing and global access. The paper predicts that future will hold on the more than constant availability of tools to assist with traditional tasks. Computing with natural data types include first class natural data types which include the ease of development by handling inputs such as keyboard and mouse. The term is in detail explained with the examples of Tivoli System. The common problem of error handling is endemic, as author says, to the design of computer systems that attempt to emulate the human capabilities. Error reduction, error discovery and the reusable infrastructure for error correction are the emerging research areas for the field of error handling. Context aware computing are a leap on the fundamentals of location aware devices. Location aware devices leveraged the context, user location and provided valuable services. Context aware devices do not incorporate knowledge of time and history, Context still can be defined with the contexts of who, which is the identity of the user, what the user is interacting, when, indicating the time and why, indicating understanding of the user. Challenges in capture and access are abundant. The concluding thoughts of Weiser claim that development of devices and infrastructure can be driven by the reason being the creation of compelling applications. ******* The paper titled ‘The Computer for the 21st Century’ focuses on the technologies for the future which are profound and are disappeared eventually in the daily life. The paper talks about many such examples starting with the silicon based information technology. The author asserts to thinking of a new way of computers that considers the human world and allows computer to disappear. The disappearance being consequence of human psychology. The author also exemplifies the sizes and the tweaks of the uses of computer. Tabs are the highlighted and illustrated example. Processors and displays should be capable of ubiquitous computing was the expectation by the end of the decade. Key components of ubiquitous being pads and tabs under development at Xerox, author believed the future homes will have hundreds of these tiny computers. The prediction being problem of information overload will be overcomed by the ubiquitous computing.

Manali Shimpi 0:01:52 10/4/2015

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: The paper explores how the perspective of the applications has evolved in the decade since the start of ubiquitous computing project at Xerox PARC. Three themes are considered: First are the natural interfaces that support richer variety of communication capabilities. Second is that the applications should be context aware. Third one is automated capture and access. The paper also outline the remaining research challenges for HCI researchers. The way humans interact with other humans like speech, gesture and writing should be used as implicit or explicit input to ubicomp systems. Our system should be able to handle other input types as easily as keyboard or mouse input. We should think about primitive operations that combine different natural data types. The natural data types come with new problems like new and more kinds of errors. For human satisfaction not only accuracy but also complexity of error recovery dialogues also play important role. The research areas for error handling of recognition based interfaces are Error reduction-involves research into improving recognition technology to reduce errors, Error discovery-the system should know the error has occurred, reusable infrastructure for error correction-it is useful when a class of common or similar problems exist. The context can be defined using five w’s which means : Who-current system focuses its interaction on one particular user, what-The current systems assumes what user is doing or leaves the question open, where, when- understanding relative changes in time, why-sensing other forms of contextual information that give an indication of person’s effective state. Sophisticated representation of context will enable wider range of capabilities and separation of sensing context from programmable reaction to that context. Everyday computing offers future challenges like designing a continuously present computer interface, presenting information at different levels of periphery of human attention, connecting events in the physical and virtual worlds and modifying traditional HCI methods to support designing for informal, peripheral and opportunistic behavior. The computer for the 21st century: The new way to think about the computers is the one that takes into account the human world and allows the computers themselves to vanish in the background. Embodied virtual reality refers to the process of drawing computers out of their electronic shells. Devices that transmit and display information directly face two issues which are location and scale. If the computer knows what room it is in , it will adapt its behavior without requiring artificial intelligence The author discusses issues with chalk. The software that implements a large shared display and if its electronic chalk is not the same as that of its workstation, a lot of switching between keyboard and chalk will take place. Ubiquitous computers will help overcome problem of information overload. They reside in the human world and pose no barrier to personal interaction.

Zinan Zhang 17:19:42 10/4/2015

1. For The Computer for the 21st Century--------- The paper mainly talks about the ubiquitous computing which is the form of the computers will be in the 21st century by the author’s prediction. The author first evaluates the deficiency of the current computers and then he conceives the ubiquitous computing that he thinks it should be. Now in 21st century, most of what the author predicted comes true. In the paper, the author says that the computer should not be constrained in a box. The computer can be performed in many different kinds of form. For example, it can be made like a scratch paper. People can scratch on it with an electric pen so that it will be extremely convenience for people to work with it. Now, the Apple’s pad, ipad, is so popular not only among youth but also senior people. With the help of an ipad, people can do nearly everything they do on a computer, as well as scratching on it. But an ipad is more portable and easy taking. Although the computer in the form of pad is just beginning popular in recent years, it will become more popular in this 21st century I think, because the Microsoft company has just released their final version of the series of Windows operating system—Window10. The Microsoft declared that they are about to focus on the development of the pad system (the system operate on the pad). They will not spend more resource on the development of the desktop system like Windows. So I think that means the mainstream of the future computer are what the author predicted. In the paper, the author think the future computer is not a pad, but a ubiquitous computing. It is a combination of equipment such as pad, tabs and boards. I think the technology now is heading for this goal as well. In someday of the future, the computer is no more a single object, but a system that embedded in everywhere in our daily life. Maybe a wall can be transformed into a huge electric screen only by touch it with our finger. And we can download the documents from the screen to the laptop by swiping it. If this really comes true, life will be much more easy for human. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. For Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing-------- The paper mainly talks about the ubiquitous computing and reviews specifically in three themes: natural interfaces, context-aware, capture and access. Among the three themes, I think the context-aware is a really challenge part to accomplish. Although separate them for single parts is easy to accomplish, combine them to work together is not such an easy thing. For example, GPS has to know where it is (that is its position) so that it can tell the user which way should be took or which direction should be head for; an temperature sensor can identify where is hot and where is cold. But when combine them two to a missile, things is becoming complexity. The missile uses the temperature sensor to locate the position of the target and uses GPS to plan the route for hitting the target. And during this process, there will be lots of error can exist. Maybe there are another object with a higher temperature so the missile will hit a wrong target. Perhaps some thing else disturbs the GPS signal so the missile cannot plan an effective route to get the target. I think the ubiquitous computing faces the same problem. Thus it is really hard for the designer to overcome the difficulties when inventing the ubiquitous computing.

Mingda Zhang 22:34:14 10/4/2015

The Computer for the 21st Century This paper is very interesting, especially considering the fact that it was published in 1991. Almost two decades ago researchers at PARC had predicted the future with ubiquitous computing. Part of the imaginations have become the everyday routines in nowadays daily life, and part of them are still under pursuit. It is actually quite inspiring to check back with these old but classical literatures to get a better understanding of the initial motivations. From this paper, the concepts of tabs, pads and boards are proposed and illustrated (and prototyped by PARC researchers). As a fun fact, from some rumors I've heard, the name of Apple iPad is coming from this paper. These three types of devices are representing functionally different computers with different sizes. In fact, modern intelligent computers are also following similar tracks: wearable devices, mobile phones(including PDAs and super notebook computer) and larger devices with interactive screens. Most interesting part in this paper is the imaginary daily life of Sal. I doubt if many people will believe the author when the paper first published, but nowadays these fantasies are no longer seen as impossible. The authors as well as his collaborators in PACR has prototyped many of these devices and thus the problems he mentioned in the paper are truly existing. Some of the concerns are indeed becoming critical problems for designing these devices, such as privacy protection, network limitation and collaborative environment construction. As in the first decade of 21st century we have overcome many technical limitations and made preliminary progress in building intelligent everyday life. It is highly possible that one day in the future the invisible ubiquitous computing environment can be realized. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper reviews the concept of ubiquitous computing as well as some preliminary progress in achieving such environment. Traditionally related studies focus on natural interfaces, context-aware responsive system and automated information capture and access. The authors summarize the fruitful results in each individual subfield and propose to add another dimension, time, as continuous interaction can bring out many challenges as well. The authors spend much time reviewing the progress people have made, or tried very hard to achieve, from these perspective, but also pointing out some critical remaining challenges calling for further efforts. From my perspective these insightful suggestions are more valuable because it reveals the key to finally solve the problem. For example, in automated information capture and retrieval, authors propose a sociological problem of privacy protection. This is more challenging than technical problems because it relates to basic human rights. In fact, after fifteen years many of the technical problems have been satisfactorily dealt with, while these concerns are becoming real problem. Similarly with the first paper, some techniques have not matured by the publication time and many of the analysis are based on their guesses. Although some of the predictions have been proved to be true, some technical progress may have gone beyond their imagination. Therefore, we still need to treat these papers as valuable legacy. In other words, we should read it critically.

Shijia Liu 23:29:39 10/4/2015

Section 1,The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper introduced the concept of 21st century of the computer for us. The computer sometimes have a similar consideration like writing, whenever people learn something sufficiently well, they cease to be aware of it. When you look at a street sign, for example, you absorb its information without consiousely performing the act of reading. Above on that, the author also give us that the opposition between the notion of virtual reality and ubiquitous, invisible computing is so strong to the process of drawing computers out of their electronic shells. By using some instance and experiments, to some extent, the paper discussed the ubiquitous computers. There are some machine like light switches, thermostats, stereos and ovens help to activate the world. These machines and more will be interconnected in a ubiquitous network. Furthermore, the ubiquitous computers will help overcome the problem of information overload. Machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs will make using a computer as refreshing as taking and reside in the human world and pose no barrier to the personal interactions.===========Section 2 Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing. This paper introduce the outline about the augmentation and perspective based on Weiser’s search relavent to the ubiquitous computers. By comparing with Weiser’s search, the author thought that nowadays, people using the various of kinds of HCI, it is not the issue about the single application any more, to more extent, the ubiquitous computing is to provide many single-activity interactions together continuous interaction between humans and computational services. By promoting the Weiser's view, it need to change the perspectives from thinking about one single interface to more conditions. The interaction should be more free, it need to take more consideration about the physical world about the user daily life.

Priyanka Walke 23:50:51 10/4/2015

Reading Critique on The Computer for the 21st Century This paper mainly discusses the concept pf Ubiquitous Computing and also the technology needed in order to achieve it. It majorly is concerned about the everyday and everywhere presence of computers that they need to be disguised so that we become a bit unaware of their existence and hence do not become the centre of our daily curriculum. Now, the use of computers as mentioned above is so extensive that they have become a part of every single activity of ours without even being noticeable to us. This is what has made us dependent on them and we are slightly losing our own ability to interact amongst ourselves which has been distinctly stated in the paper. We do not want to become a mechanical element and seclude ourselves from social responsibilities and interactions. In fact, we want the computers to be an integral part of our existing environment and improvise it. We want to make them flexible enough to manipulate the software as per the hardware. This paper also addresses the issues of privacy and misuse of the information by a bad device. However, the author’s concept of having hundreds of computers in a single room in order to implement ubiquitous computing is unacceptable. With a continuous advancement in the technology, it is possible to integrate a large amount of devices into just small devices like cell phones, tablets etc. This is because a single point of control will make it much more flexible for us to handle. Reading Critique on Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper also discusses about the existing technology and ongoing research in the field of ubiquitous computing. The paper focuses on 3 important points of interactions themes being the natural interfaces, context-aware applications and automated capture & access. It talks majorly about the advantages and the disadvantages that need to be addressed in the upcoming research. Ubiquitous computing is a term used to measure a variety of operations in terms of people, their count, their interactions and the applications that are developed in order to obtain them. It also introduced the concept of time stamping of events so that it becomes extremely important for them to focus in that area and the time needed to record them. Also the acknowledgement provided by these computers is not accurate enough to those provided by the humans and hence the use those set of modules used extensively are thereby needed to be used for re-usable libraries. Since ubiquitous computing incorporates a lot of things, it is somewhat difficult to evaluate the research and projects in it as they do not give a clear picture of human and machine interference and their interaction points. This in fact endangers the user studies that need to be carried out for those projects. Hence, it is therefore necessary to recognize the everyday human demands and prove how a specific application thrives to satisfy them. The information needed here can be collected by designing a small prototype. However, there are a lot more unanswered questions pertaining to piracy, security etc. and no fool proof solution for them exists. It is definitely a major concern to voice such issues.

Long Nguyen 23:59:23 10/4/2015

Read on "The Computer for the 21st Century": The paper provides vision about ubiquitous computing from the author's view in 1991. First with the concept of true ubiquitous, where "the most profound technologies are those that disappear", author pointed out some fundamental requirements of ubiquitous computers to sense and with combination of many small computers in different shape and size, human's activities can be supported effectively. Many of paper's idea has taken part into real life nowadays like smart phone, tablet (as pads), which is the evidence for accurate prediction this paper has made .I really like the idea of writing normal life scenery of an imaginary woman in the paper, which is very rare in scientific papers. First it sounds more like a fiction movie or novel but with all the knowledge about computing potential and avalability in the future, the story become difference and realizable. I believe the paper createed a huge motivations diretions for others researches in ubiquitous computing on its upcoming time--------------------------Read on "Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing": Previous paper "The Computer for the 21st Century", which published 10 years ago, was mentioned in this paper as future visions and inspirations. This paper first contributed as an overview analysis of what a ubiquitous computing was and should be, with many research's attempt in "natural interfaces", where computers can interact with human in most natural ways and activites; "context-aware computing", where definition of what contexts should be and how context information can have variable meaning under particular circumstances. I believe the main contribution of this paper comes from part 5: toward everyday computing, where authors present ideas and concept how future ubiquitous computing should be and what obstacles should be cleared to be able to achieve better goals. Also in 6.2, paper provides and extraodianry visions about privacy and security issues in ubiquitous computing, and one of recent example we can see is from google's goggle.

Chi Zhang 0:05:18 10/5/2015

Critiques on “The Computer for the 21st Century” by Chi Zhang. This paper is a paper that describes the future computer and introduces the concept of ubiquitous computing. According to the authors, one significant requirement of ubiquitous computers, is the ability to sense location and create machines with different sizes, shapes and functionalities. Ubiquity also comes by increasing the number of computers in space and automating everyday actions. The goal of ubiquitous computing is to make computers fade into background. Three main techniques that will help the ubiquitous systems are mentioned by the authors. They are cheap and low power computers, software and network. The function of network is to tie them together. This paper accurately predicted the future in a very exact way. It was very insightful and predictive. According to the time it got published, the authors really did very good researches. --------------------------------------Critiques on “Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing” by Chi Zhang. This paper is more like a survey of past researches on ubiquitous computing. According to the authors, most significant achievements in ubiquitous computing are in the area of speech and pen input detection. Authors also aimed to provide the future roads of ubiquitous computing. One important part of ubiquitous computing brought by the authors is that people could develop more context aware systems to seamlessly gather and display information. This could greatly help overcome the obstacles of UC development. As a whole, this is a very good paper in introducing UC and its problems, and the authors gave very insightful advice on improving the performance of UC.

Samanvoy Panati 1:00:15 10/5/2015

Critique 1: The Computer for the 21st Century This paper discusses about Ubiquitous computing and how to achieve it. The goal is to make computers disappear in the background. It means making people unaware of the presence of computers and let them focus on other things. The paper introduces the products developed in Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. It introduces the prototypes of different products called tabs, pads and boards which are the technologies that are marked as the beginning of ubiquitous computing. The goal is to make computers aware of their location so that they can perform the corresponding functions accordingly with less use of artificial intelligence. The author mentions an interesting issue about an intelligent computer leading to a lot of privacy problems. The problems like what kind of data a device can access, how the data should be shared among them. Overall, the author gives very important insight into the concept of ubiquitous computing which may very well be seen in many technologies developed today. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Critique 2: Charting Past, Present and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing This paper presents some history of ubiquitous computing, addresses some open challenges and discusses some future possibilities in the field. Historically, application-based research divided ubiquitous computing into three categories-natural interfaces, context-aware applications and automated capture and access. The paper explains the necessity of everyday computing which is researching everyday activities. Among the three categories of interaction in ubiquitous computing, the natural interface is the most important requirement and it has been studies by most researchers. The normal interaction between human and computer using keyboard, mouse is getting replaced by many other interfaces. The social implications are also an area of concern and the solutions provided to the problems of security, privacy and copyrights are not adequate. It is quite certain that ubiquitous computing will be more popular and will be available to everyone in the future. Finally, ubiquitous computing is not meant to work as independent and single applications but as a free-flow and integrative system that provides convenience of daily life in a natural way.

Xinyue Huang 3:00:27 10/5/2015

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing The paper investigates the brief history of ubiquitous computing through exploration of some interaction themes, natural interfaces, context-aware computing and automated capture and access for live experience. For natural interfaces, the paper focused on two issues that are important for enabling the rapid development of effective natural interfaces. The first one is first-class natural data types and the second one is error-prone interaction for recognition-based interaction. For recognition-based interaction, the issue of error handling has to be addressed and there are three aspects for error handling: error reduction, error discovery and reusable infrastructure for error correction. The second one is context-aware computing. For example, location is a common piece of context used in application development. The paper push forward on incorporating more context information, representing context, ubiquitous access to context sensing and context fusion, and the coupling of context and natural interaction to provide effective augmented reality. The paper stated that there are five aspects for context: who, what, where, when and why. For automated capture and access to live experiences, the design of tools for general capture-and-access theme has gone for a long way. The paper introduces some challenges in capture and access. For capture, there are many possibilities for exploring capture in equally compelling domains. For access challenge, we need to provide a number of playback capabilities. For everyday computing, some features require to be addressed. These issues include that they rarely have a clear beginning or end, interruption is expected, multiple activities operate concurrently, time is an important discriminator and associative models of information are needed. The paper also introduces some directions about everyday computing, such as designing a continuously present computer interface, presenting information at different levels of the periphery of human attention, connecting events in the physical and virtual worlds and modifying traditional HCI methods to support designing for informal, peripheral and opportunistic behavior. In the final part of the paper, some additional challenges are listed such as how to evaluate ubicomputing systems which included finding a human need, evaluating in the context of authentic use. The paper hoped that these challenges could give lights for researchers to attack well-defined problems. Mark Weiser The paper introduced ubiquitous computing and gave a detailed descriptions and examples about how to achieve ubiquitous computing and what the challenges are. The paper first mentioned that the most profound technologies are those that disappear because they weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are distinguishable from it. Such a disappearance is a fundamental consequence nor of technology but of human psychology, because whenever people learn something well, they cease to be aware of it. Tow issues are presented by paper which need to be taken into consideration. The first one is that the machines will be interconnected in a ubiquitous network and the second one is that ubiquitous computers will come in different sizes, each suited to a particular task. The paper first introduced an experiment example to design prototype tabs, pads and boards. Then it stated that the challenge of ubiquitous computing emerges from interaction of all of them. Such technology require three aspects: cheap, low-power computers that include equally convenient displays, software for ubiquitous applications and a network that ties them all together. Beyond these challenges, the network to connect ubiquitous hardware and software pose further challenges. Engineers have to develop new communication protocols. In the final part of the paper, the author kept the standpoint that ubiquitous computing would emerge as the dominant mode of computer access over the next 20 years, which can make everything easier and faster.

Lei Zhao 4:21:56 10/5/2015

Paper 1: The major topic of this paper is ubiquitous computing. This paper uses a way that discusses the difference between ubiquitous computing and multimedia to discuss this topic. The multimedia focus on the user’s attention, but the ubiquitous computing trend to fade into background. Many instances can be seen in our daily life that computing device is everywhere. Most computers participate in embodied virtuality will be invisible as well as metaphor. Ubiquitous computers will also come in different sizes that are more suitable for some particular tasks. The author took a experiment of ubiquitous. The ubiquitous computing requires three parts of technology, that is cheap, low-power computers that include equally convenient displays, software for ubiquitous applications and a network that ties them all together. Currently, the different issue is larger displays. As for network for transmission, the rates for both wired and wireless are becoming rapid. However, the problem of transparency linking resists solution. There are still many problem need to solve. ////////////////////////////// Paper 2: This paper tells about the history of ubiquitous and also indicates the future of this field. The past decade is application-driven developing that pushed three themes, that is natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. After reviewing the achievements of there research, the author also proposes a new area everyday computing that focus on scaling interaction with respect to time, and it provides continuous interaction moves. For implementing this goal, the author need to address interruption and resumption of interaction, represent passages of time and provide associative storage models.

Jesse Davis 4:32:56 10/5/2015

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing As states the title of this paper, the topics covered are the past present and future of ubiquitous computing. The paper begins by giving an overview of ubiquitous computing (which is defined as the trend of microprocessors being embedded in almost all of our everyday objects in order to communicate and relay information) and mentions a few important interaction themes: natural interfaces (which are interfaces that typically don’t involve the usual mouse and keyboard interaction and deal with more “natural” actions such as writing, speaking, etc.), context-aware computing (I find this one the most interesting; it deals with applications that use a user’s location as basis for some sort of application e.g. map updates, call forwarding, etc.), and automated capture and access for live experiences (quite literal). After covering these the paper covers the area of everyday computing and transitions into additional challenges that there are for ubicom, with the most prominent being evaluation methods and social issues in relation to ubicom. Very interesting paper overall, and I’m more interested in reading into the context aware computing and looking into something similar to that for the next group project. The Computer for the 21st Century Another decent paper that speaks on the topic of ubiquitous computing. I feel like the paragraphs all ran together and although they had a good flow between them, it would be nice to have portions sectioned off so that the user would have a better idea of what they were reading; I didn’t get much more out of this article than “this is information about ubiquitous computing”. I’m hoping Professor Wang goes over this one in class tomorrow because I’m not really sure what we were supposed to pull from the paper knowledge wise, or if it was just to be an informative paper on ubicom.

Darshan Balakrishna Shetty 6:00:53 10/5/2015

The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper author tries to present a view of the future of computer technology and ubiquitous computing technology. He talks about technology being invisible to the common man in the same sense as the writings/literature i.e., technology is successful if it goes unnoticed and is completely blended in the society. Just like we expect electricity to be present everywhere. In 21st century, we notice that smart phone has blended in our society such that almost everyone has got one and is connected to internet. The paper on similar grounds talks much more about ubiquitous computing thinking of technology not only in the sense of computers but much more. The stuff like the virtual reality, internet of things etc on which currently lot of research has been going on. Eventhough the paper was presented in sept 1991 he could predict these things which are worked on nowadays. -------------------------------------------------- Charting past, present and future research in Ubiquitous computing: Again this paper sheds more light on what is ubiquitous computing and what is not and discusses the requirement of the ubiquitous computing like natural interfaces and on what context, how to capture and access. This paper also talks about an interesting point, about merging of multiple forms of media that users engage that adds value to the ubiquitous computing environment that users would not otherwise be able to experience. For instance, taking into account location awareness and context fusion allows a ubiquitous computing system to make intelligent decisions that would not otherwise be available to it. One example of this is an intelligent home or office system, where the system is able to determine my location and the context i.e., say coming to work, the system may be able to prepare my workspace for me like turn on my computer, show up my calendar, the to-do list, switch on the heat/AC, start the coffee pot etc just according to my needs(user needs). Author talks about the challenges to achieve this, social implications of ubiquitous computing, how we need to deal with security issues, what the ubiquitous computing should address and to protect the user privacy.

Sudeepthi Manukonda 7:17:38 10/5/2015

This article called “Computer for the 21st century” is a very interesting article written by Mark Weiser. He is known as ubiquitous computing. This article is about the current research that he is doing, and also about the path of research for the future. Mark Weiser says that the most profound of technologies are the one that disappear after being utilised completely. When he said disappear he means that they become a part of everyones’s everyday life. The example of ubiquitous technology he gives is writing. And he gives it the term, literary technology. We interact with writing almost everyday and unconsciously. We use on sign boards, as a means of communication, and almost every where. Weiser says the computers are not a natural part of everydays life as yet and the user needs to know a set of commands before she attempts to use it. This is unnecessary because he actually doesn’t use the computer for any of the commands that he has learnt. What Weiser says that individual computer is just a transition step. To understand what disappearing into the background is, two analogies are discussed. One is whether ubiquitous computing means taking the computer to the beaches, jungle, the airport and practically everywhere or does it mean computing ones own self. The second one is mostly impractical. What Weiser actually means is the basic computing objects that we usually use everyday. They include light switches, stereos, and ovens, which actually the connects the world in a huge interconnected computing network. The main points of such an interconnection are location and scale. Weiser explains that ubiquitous computing world is based on tabs, pads and boards. Tab is the smallest component of this world, like calculators or organisers. Consider a badge that does everything for a man, Greets him, receives forwarded telephone calls, provides security and also note down event. Such a small computing unit is called a tab. Using a collection of tabs, people can computing a huge computing fast. Now to pads. They have no individual identity. They can be used together. Like joining a certain number of pads to draw the blue print. Each pad would then hold some part of the blue print. After pad is the board. Board is analogous to bulletin boards of home theatres. They help computing at a group level. Tabs will help to help animate objects, help search for objects, of modify functionality's on the screen. Computers, networks and software systems are the two key factors of this vision. Computers should be cheap and consume low power, networks should connect efficiently the most significant part, and software systems are defined by the ubiquitous applications. The predictions Weiser makes are met and have become more advanced. The nano size technology, the very high memory, cloud computing are all the examples of how we have achieved Weisers predictions. It talks about how the scientists have thought of computing and what they hoped for the future. This article also tells how we have surpassed it. The second article also talks about ubiquitous computing but talks about eh definitions in more details. Gregory D. Abowd and Elizabeth D. Mynatt have given us a truly interesting article. Ubiquitous computing means enhancing the computer use by making many computer available throughout the physical environment and making them effectively invisible to the user. There is not one but many variations of the same definition of ubiquitous computing. Most people think ubiquitous technology as something where the technology assists us in real life. Like a refrigerator telling you when to buy milk. This is not ubiquitous technology. This is because of the complexity that was involved in the situation. So, ubiquitous computing aims at achieving its goals without increasing the complexity. The ubiquitous computing requires natural interfaces and context-awareness. Natural interfaces facilitating the richer variety of communications capabilities between human and the the computer system. Context awareness applications adapt their behaviour based on the informations sensed from the physical and computational world. Data capture is the most important part to make any ubiquitous technology possible and this should happen electronically. Electronically capturing the hand movement is relatives easy and there have been certain technologies already using that. But interpreting and manipulating those strokes as words and number or other symbols is much more difficult. Location awareness is another major part of ubiquitous technology. GPS is the best of examples of location based services. The authors have also listed several areas where research is important. Context fusion, Audio/video and merging of multiple forms of media are some of those fields. In concluding the article, the authors say that standards are very important for any part of ubiquitous computing. Standards should be set up and they should be given complete priority. And also video storage will have to be advanced.

Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh Torbati 8:40:32 10/5/2015

Critique for The Computer for The 21st Century This paper talked about the future trend of the development of computer, which is Ubiquitous computing. The author also gave us some ideas about what the computer will be in the future. I think this paper is important for the development of computer technology. It not just introduced the ubiquitous computing. It actually gave us an idea about what will be the trend of the mainstream development of computer technology. Due to the development of technology, we can make devices that are so small but so powerful. These devices can bring us the possibility to bring computing into every corner of our everyday life. We can use computer to assist us for jobs, by which means that we can let computers be our secretary that works for 24/7. We can let them to turn on or turn off lights or air conditioning. We can let them to park cars and even drive on the way. People no longer restricted on windows based interface or some virtual reality. Thus I think it can stand for the trend of computer development, and we actually can see some sign of it in recently computer achievements. In the article, the author said that in the future, computer screens will become big and with high resolutions. It turns out to be accomplished. Retina display that first introduced by Apple has become popular in products, and it will become commonly used in the future. The author also said some ideas that have achieved today. Using computer on pad has become the reality. People can carry with a ten-inch screen pad to control light, to monitoring product line or even to do piano/guitar performance. The author is very accurate on prediction. It may due to comprehensive analysis of the development of society, technology and computers. I think ubiquitous computing will become more popular in the future. Critique for charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing In general, this paper, talked about what is ubiquitous computing and some related research results. It also included some points that need to care about when developing ubiquitous computing and some case studies. Basically, this paper summarized the development of ubiquitous computing. It points out important things involved in the development. The author talked about the interfaces, since ubiquitous computing didn’t limited by the keyboard-mouse interface. Many possible interfaces can be generated. Most of them are natural interface, which use natural user input like speech, handwriting and gestures. Carefully use of these interfaces can bring users a natural feeling on using computers. For example, speech interface can bring user a feeling of conversation, if the speech interface implement properly. Also there are some context-aware interfaces, which using some information related users behavior, like GPS information. By using GPS location changes, we achieved navigation. Also we can use the information about how long does the user stay in one place to determine users’ habit so that we can give user some guidance, like treated the place that stay at for the most time as home so that the system can give user the information for how long they can drive to home or some traffic information. These ideas are important for developers so that I think this paper are important for the development of ubiquitous computing. Due to the time change, ubiquitous computing has become more popular than before. People like to use cell phone to access Internet when they are away from computers. People can use computer to do some actions that they have to do manually before, such as open windows, change temperature on air conditioning. It can be sure that ubiquitous computing will be much more popular in the future. I believe that this are of study will contribute a lot on human technology.

Ankita Mohapatra 9:02:17 10/5/2015

The first paper is mainly about ubiquitous computing which is the idea of integrating computers into the world. Then, they present prototype tabs, pads, and boards which can be just the beginning of ubiquitous computing. They suggest three technology requirements for ubiquitous computing: cheap, low-power computers, software for ubiquitous applications, and a network that connects them. This paper also gives a scenario of ubiquitous computing and mentions a privacy problem. There are couple of reasons for this. One of the reasons is that the computer screen is a demanding focus of attention which won't allow it to disappear in the environment. Ubiquitous computing, therefore could be achieved through different metaphor and come in different sizes. The authors gives the example that a normal room is actually surrounded by hundreds of computers. They would be in the format of tabs, pads and board-size writing and display surfaces. The author then gives examples of how these three different sized elements could be equipped in the room. They also focus on the interactions of all of them. Technologies are required such as chap, low-power computers with convenient displays softwares and networks. Details are discussed in the following paragraphs. For example, current window displays are not suitable for ubiquitous purpose since they typically assume that a particular computer will display all the information for a single application. Solutions could be approached by changing the protocols by which the applications communicate with displays of different sizes. Network could provide other challenges. Although the network could work very fast, there are still problems connecting wired and wireless networks transparently. A mobile device could provide solution such that a single device is used to serve all three functions. It will be interesting to see if the next generation of computer science research yields a network that can serve the demands of a ubiquitous system. ---------- The second paper is mainly about the brief history of ubiquitous computing through exploration of three interaction themes and outlines some remaining challenges. In addition, the authors posit a new area of applications research, everyday computing. First, the paper reviews the history of ubiquitous computing from three aspects: natural interfaces, context-aware computing and automated capture and access for live experiences. The paper also emphasizes the intersection of intrusion as well as blending in with the natural interaction with every day events. The use of location based technologies can ease the life of the user, without intruding. They like to use the example of a classroom a lot when talking about capturing in the fourth part. This paper bring out a different aspects of interaction inspired by widespread access to information and computational capabilities. They are three themes of ubiquitous applications: natural interface, context-aware, and automate capture. Then the paper explains the necessity for research to explore the continuous every activities which is called everyday computing. Discussing the three aspects of interaction in ubiquitous computing, the natural interface is most important requirement and has been studied intensively. As the requirement is about natural interaction between human and computer, the keyboard, mouse and display paradigm is being replace by the way human interacts with real world. Besides the challenges mentioned before, the inherent challenges for all streams that mentioned include social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. At last, the author points out the ubiquitous computing system is not meant to be work as independent and single applications for single tasks but a flow-free and integrative system that provides convenience of daily life in a fluent and natural way.