Design Process and Support Tools

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slides

Readings

Reading Critiques

Zuha Agha 2:31:19 9/22/2016

Where do websites come from? The paper presents a history system that translates the pen and paper practice of communicating ideas into a large, electronic wall-scale system with a tangible interface. The purpose of this system is to aid in capture and retrieval of ideas in collaborative web design. The system features are inspired from several other previous applications such as the mechanism for adding inferred or explicit bookmarks borrowed from Audio Notebook and WeMet systems. The system provides 3 different ways of interaction: main timeline, local timeline and synopsis view. It also describes the tools available for convenient filtering and navigation of the timeline. One of the most interesting features is the way the system combines branched and linear history to support retention of full history for multi-level undo/redo operations. It achieves this by having a current strand for the active state and stub strands for the previously inactive states. Another feature in the system is the choice for an annotated synopsis view from bookmarks or history. The paper studies the usability and use-cases of the features provided by this design history system by conducting user studies on different scenarios. Feedback from user studies showed that most users enjoyed their interaction with the design history system, however some features such as frequent auto-bookmarking needed improvement. In my opinion, this paper proposed an interesting framework for collaborative exchange of ideas electronically. It is interesting to notice that even though it’s been a decade since the paper was published, white board designs in collaborative scenarios are still pretty dominant. Moreover, with the rise of cloud computing, designer now rely on cloud services such as dropbox or google drive for collaboration to share their design ideas instead of a wall-scale electronic interface system. ======================================================= Brainstorming In this chapter, the author talks about the do’s and don’ts of brainstorming ideas. Though the concept of brainstorming seems very obvious and simple, the author says that there are certain characteristics that can make a person master the art of brainstorming. It is important to learn the skills of brainstorming because it promotes productivity and growth of a company with an exchange of new, innovative ideas. One of the characteristics underlying good brainstormers includes the ability to lead the session in the right direction with the right level of focus and specificity. Moreover, it is also recommended to avoid being critical of others ideas in a brainstorming session. Numbering and visualization of ideas through diagrams in brainstorming sessions contributes towards the session as well. By maintaining a positive vibrant energy, a brainstormer can actually have a ripple effect leading to a great synergy in the team. Lastly, the author discusses the wrong ways of brainstorming that hinder open flow of ideas. It includes pressurizing participants to produce patentable ideas, seeking out ideas from participants in a round robin fashion, limiting brainstorming to domain experts only and writing everything down as it can potentially shift a person’s focus. Overall, I felt that most of the discussion in the chapter was too obvious or maybe it is because brainstorming is such a common practice in our daily lives that we tend to take these principles of brainstorming as a given.

Tazin Afrin 23:58:21 9/25/2016

Critique of “Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History”: In this paper, the authors designed an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative information design. Their system reviews the history of a project through the design phase. Particularly in their experiment, they build a research prototype of a web design and this actively monitors the changes in a SMART board during the design process of a web page. The authors are inspired by informal capture, which collects information from users in a natural way. Some example of this is the Classroom 2000 project, AudioNotebook etc where the systems use visual information, audio information, and even information form students’ note. The history system is a tool to support information design for web which embraces a paper based technique through SMART board. In this system, users can create a website by using post-it notes and organizing them on a SMART board. The three facilities provided by the system are – a main timeline, a local timeline and a synopsis view. The system present a detailed thumbnails of the past designs of a website with criteria and editing options. It also provides collapsible branched histories. The annotated synopsis view summarizes all the design change history. Also the user studies were done with real web designers. An interesting observation of this study is that, too much detail can ruin the productivity. A rather more interesting idea to add in this system would be audio input. I think, getting audio instruction from the user could reduce mistakes and make the process faster and more intuitive. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Critique of “The Perfect Brainstorm”: In this interesting article, the author Linus Pauling discussed the importance of brainstorming the best methods to brainstorm and the pitfalls to watch out for. The author emphasized that an openness to brainstorming is the major issue. A perfect brainstorming facilitates the creation of ideas by establishing a set of rules. The author gives seven secret for better brainstorming. A clear idea about the topic increases the focus. Brainstorm may not be started with hard and fast rules or debates or presentations, rather it should be started with playful rules such as simple questioning. Numbering the ideas is a great to remember and jump back and forth. So a brainstormer may try building an idea by encouragement and a little push. Also burning some time at the beginning of brainstorming may be very obvious and sometimes helpful. Also sketching the idea helps to understand the state of an idea. However sometimes people take brainstorming in a very wrongful way. A leader of a company should always facilitate for new ideas, does not matter if it is novel or not and can decide if can branch on that idea later. But if the leader only appreciates high quality ideas, people may lose interest for bringing in any idea. I found this article very interesting and I think this help a lot in understanding the importance of brainstorming. Also this article is true for every one not for any particular research interest. But particularly this is important for branches like HCI, where generating new idea definitely needs some thinking and brainstorming.

Haoran Zhang 13:54:32 9/26/2016

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: Authors discussed about the history of capturing and interacting of design. They present four history system of different scenarios, they are reaching an unproductive point, and heading off in a new direction from an earlier point; writing a summary of a design session; finding the rationale behind a decision; creating a set of action items from a design session. They built a history system as an extension of the Designers’ Outpost. The paper presents us a way to make our design to satisfy the users’ requirements. First make a rough design, and repeatedly change it to fulfill the users’ needs. We can use prototype to help us finish the first design, simple and rough. We can use HyperCard, or other packages to help us create a prototype rapidly. Provide a prototype at the first stage will help us to save time on design specific interface, because we may need to change the interface later on. This paper organizes many professional practices results, and exploring interfaces for history in the context of collaborative wall-scale design. The Perfect Brainstorm: This article tells us how to get a good idea by using brainstorm, and how important of brainstorm to get a good idea. In addition, it talked about how to organize a better brainstorm, effects and ways to destroy a brainstorm. To have a better brainstorming, we should sharpen the focus, playful rules, number your ideas, build and jump, the space remembers, stretch your mental muscles, and get physical. We have ways to build it, we have ways to destroy it. They are the things that we want to avoid, they are the boss gets to speak first, everybody gets a turn, experts only please, do it off-site, no silly stuff, and write down everything. By avoid them, we can have a better chance to get rid of a bad brainstorm, and make our brainstorm more effective, which is good for our design.

Steven Faurie 14:05:11 9/26/2016

Steve Faurie The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of ideas: This article was about how to approach brainstorming sessions. The overall gist of the article was that brainstorming is something that needs to be practiced, should be different from a regular office meeting, and should be playful and fun even though you’re trying to get something accomplished. The author described several successful meetings and showed how a process that seems relatively informal can have good results. To further drive home the point of what constituted a good brainstorming session the author gave several counter examples. The first example “The boss gets to speak first” was interesting. He basically described a boss turning a brainstorming session, something where your mind should be allowed to explore possibilities that might seem absurd, into something where most people would probably want to stay quiet for fear of saying something stupid. The remainder of the counter examples were basically actions that would further formalize the process. By formalizing a brainstorming session you make people more quiet, reserved and unwilling to propose something that might be outside the normal “corporate” way of doing things. In my opinion the “corporate” way of doing things and thinking about problems is soul crushingly boring and turns people into little checkbox ticking drones that don’t really care about what they’re doing. The brainstorming session is the opposite of that. It should let people think creatively even if their proposals don’t have immediate monetary value they might lead to something that does. Where do web sites come from? Capturing and interacting with design history: This article described a system that was intended to record the history of an applications development and design. In many ways the system was like GIT for design meetings. It allowed branching, viewing past histories, etc. The system itself was designed in a way that attempted to work with designers in a way they were accustomed to. It used the existing whiteboard method of design, along with using post it notes to fit into established meeting patterns rather than trying to create new ones. This is probably a good choice for the user. It doesn’t force them to learn something new or drastically change how they are used to doing things. Instead it augments the existing process by adding features that require little additional effort. In general that seems like good design practice to me.

Keren Ye 14:55:48 9/26/2016

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History This paper describes the work of designing a history system which is implemented in the context of the designers’ outpost. What they tried is a collaborative web site design, and they get promising practical results. The authors firstly introduce the background of the project, then they propose their informal history capture and retrieval mechanism that supports these activities for collaborative, early-stage information design. Three mechanisms for accessing design history are presented: a main timeline, a local timeline , and a synopsis view. Also, the authors have designed the history system around a set of scenarios: 1) reaching an unproductive point, and heading off in a new direction from an earlier point; 2) writing a summary of a design session; 3) finding the rationale behind a decision; 4) creating a set of action items from a design session. The authors describe their system in details especially the field studies and design studies they made. Then in the conclusion part, they state that they contribute to present informal history mechanism for collaborative design of information architectures and the professional end users feel excited about the functionalities of their system. The Perfect Brainstorm In the first chapter the authors propose the problem with brainstorming, that is everyone thinks they already do it. They think that one can deliver more value, create more energy, and foster more innovation through better brainstorming. Therefore they give seven suggestions about how to get better brainstorming in the next chapter: 1) Sharpen the focus, which means discuss with a well-honed statement of the problem. 2) Playful rules, which means do not critique or debate ideas all the time. 3) Number the ideas, which means limit the topics thus saving time and improving quality. 4) Build and jump, which allow to broaden minds to innovate ideas. 5) The space remembers, which means remember the topics in a way such as write the flow of ideas down in a medium visible to the whole group. 6) Stretch mental muscles, which means to efficiently brainstorm. 7) Get physical, which means discuss with more visual elements in the meeting to make the discussion more vivid. Then the authors discuss the effect of brainstorm, it should help to harvest more innovative ideas. Then they focus on discussing ways to make a brainstormer not works, including 1) The boss gets to speak first. 2) Everybody gets a turn. 3) Experts only pldease. 4) Do it off-set. 5) No silly stuff. 6) Write down everything.

Alireza Samadian Zakaria 23:23:05 9/26/2016

The first paper is about a history system designed by the authors which can be used in early-phase design. This system has been design so that the users can add notes and other forms of recorded data and review or change them later. This system is inspired mostly by the work in design rationale and in capture and access applications. In this system there are three mechanisms for accessing design history: the first mechanism is a main timeline which displays the history using thumbnails. The user can filter these thumbnails and there are two types of filtering for this purpose. Activity filters and inferred filters. The first kind of filter is based on explicit things made by the user like actions, bookmarks and meetings. The second kind allows the user to filter by time, note or author. These filters enable the user to find and review desired events in timeline. They have used direct manipulation for timeline and they have even gone further and designed some hardware for scrolling through history. Their representation of history allows the user to see other branches which have been altered by some other actions. The second mechanism for accessing design history is the local timeline which is introduced as a way to view a lighter weight history for an individual object. However, I personally find it as a kind of inferred filter. The third mechanism is synopsis visualization which is based on the explicit user bookmarks or a set of filters. It is again some sort of filtering on the main timeline. Furthermore, the authors talk about 4 different scenarios in which the user would experience some situation in early phase of design and they have provided solutions for those scenarios in their program. At the end, after talking about some implementation details, they talk about their design study which was just a kind of advertisement for their method and application. ----------- The second reading is about the best way to get a good idea by brain storming. Many people think they already do the brainstorming but most of them do it wrong or not frequent so much. It is important to do it frequently since it is like learning musical instrument and we are always learning and can get continuously better. The author provides us with some advises for better brainstorming. According to his advices, it is good to start with a well-honed statement and not to start with something focusing inward on some organization goal. It is also good not to debate ideas and we should turn aside critiques without turning off the critiquer completely. The reading also suggests that it is good to number ideas and use the space for writing them or painting some figures. It also suggests to do some sort of group warm-up specially when the group has not worked together or most of the members doesn’t brainstorm frequently. It can be done in forms of a fast-paced word game or a content-related homework. It is surprising that one of the best ways to do homework is to spend some time in a local toy store looking at the state of the art. There are also some negative things that can destroy a brainstorm session. Some of them are: using a turning system, just asking experts to talk, or writing down details and useless things. One of the surprising things that can be harmful for the session is presence of buss in that session. It is good to decrease his presence since his opinion can affect others and limit their ways of thinking.

nannan wen 0:05:59 9/27/2016

Where do Web Sites Come from? Capturing and interacting with design history by Scott R. Klemmer et.al, in this paper, the author talked about how the system that built allows people to review history projects. He also talked about an informal history capture and retrieval method that can help for the information design. One of the useful features of this system is that users can share informations with teammates throughout the design process. This is helpful in a way that a user who are absent for some reason previously can up to date. And users can use filter feature to filter out informations they don’t need at that moment, which is much more convenient. The system also allows user to select in which ways they wanted to review the informations in the past, which takes human factor into account. Of course, there are other products that has similar managing strategy in the market right now, but they doesn’t have the direct manipulating interface mentioned in the paper. Perfect Brainstorming by LInus review: In this paper, the author mainly talked about what is the best method to facilitate brainstorming sessions. The author thinks that there are seven secrets to make a brainstorm successful. Which contains Sharpen the Focus, Playful Rules, Number your ideas, Build and Jump, The space Remembers, Stretch your mental muscles, Get physical. And also you need to create a harmony environment for people speak freely when it comes to share their ideas, because you may leave out good ideas if people feel judgemental and then they won’t share their thoughts easily.

Zhenjiang Fan 2:01:55 9/27/2016

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::The paper goes on the history of designing works, so the content is a little bit abstractive. From the paper's effects on this work, we could learn a lot. For example, we could get inspired by some the original ideas that happened in the past when we run out of juice inside of us. Based on this work, we could also learn how to come up with a similar work on your own field if you are not in the design world. You also can find a lot of useful lessons from the past, from that, you would get a sense why things happened in specific environments. And of course, if you are working in the design field, then this work must be educational to you. The basic structure of this work or the way it presents its ideas includes: the main timeline, a local timeline, and synopsis view. At the beginning of the work, the author introduced a list of related works that support the work itself. These supporting design systems have their own merits and shortness. Its three basic visual representations of design history well capture all the essence of design experience. Whenever a user wants to take a look at a specific piece of note, he or she can simply go to a local timeline. When the user wants to know where the design project has gone to, the user could use the main timeline or synopsis view. The paper had provided a very good theoretical architecture on how to build an informal history mechanism for collaborative design of information architectures.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::The Perfect Brainstorm:::::::::::::::::::::The work is focus on brainstorms. It explains to us why brainstorms are so important to us as an institution. Then it goes on how to improve the productivity of a brainstorm as a group, that is what each group member should do or be. And later, the work talks about the ways an individual can do to make a better contribution to the group or get more ideas from a brainstorm. The work provides us seven principles on how to make a brainstorm more efficient or effective through effects of group members. The first one is that each member should have an energic participation. Keeping a brainstorm as concentrated as possible, in that way, the outcome will be more rewarding. And of course, we don't want our discussion to rigid or tepid, we need to relax and be supportive to one another. And other tips are build and jump, number ideas, supporting devices or materials, stretch mental muscles and get physical. The work also provides some rules to govern a brainstorm meeting. They are, the boss gets to speak first, each one gets a turn, expert only, do it off-site, no silly stuff, write down everything.

Anuradha Kulkarni 4:01:18 9/27/2016

The Perfect Brainstorm: This article gives an overview of brainstorming as a skill or an art. It states that this art helps in learning continuously and deliver more value, create more energy fostering more innovation. The article first explains the seven secrets involved for better brainstorming. They are sharpening the focus, implementing rules, numbering your ideas, build over an idea or take leap, understand the power of spatial memory, warm up by fast paced word game and physically map into diagrams, figures. This article also gives the effect of exercising brainstorming. Although it is a good exercise, if not done properly it can have a negative effect. The article further expands this though by listing out the 6 ways that can kill a brainstormed: having a dogma that only boss starts off the session, allowing every participant to talk in the limited time frame, allowing the experts to speak only, carrying out in outdoor recreational spots, don’t have silly stuff and jotting down notes. This article was a very good read stating that if brainstorming was exercised in a correct way and regularly, it can lead to new innovations and lead to faster improvement. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: This paper elaborated on the history system that present an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early- stage information design. This system presents the user with a detailed timeline of thumbnails of past designs, with the ability to filter these thumbnails by various criteria and the ability to have collapsible branched histories. According to the paper, the approach is straight forward where user creates new pages by writing on new notes and post them to electronic wall and organize a site by physically moving the notes around the board. The branched history problem mentioned in the paper states that solution is not complete due its complexity. This paper was very informative and interesting.

Debarun Das 5:00:06 9/27/2016

“Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History”: This is an interesting paper that discusses in details about the system to represent an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism using a collaborative information design. It discusses in details about the three mechanisms used for this – stub branching main timeline, local timeline and annotated synopsis view. The main timeline facilitates the view of the history of the entire design process. The local timeline provides a ‘lighter weight history’ for an individual object. Synopsis action involves either manual bookmarking or infrequent automatic bookmarking. This helps in capturing the important information that can be viewed in the future. For the entire process, it captures the changes made to a SMART board for this study. This seems to be an important work in the field of developing informal history mechanism and it paves the way for future research in this field. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. “The Perfect Brainstorm”: This paper discusses the idea of brainstorming. It discusses in details the meaning of brainstorming and the utilization of brainstorming as a skill for efficient output in work. It discusses in details the seven secrets to improve brainstorming. These include sharpening the focus (i.e. having a clear cut idea of a problem), using playful rules, numbering the ideas (usually a 100 ideas for a 1 hour brain session), building and jumping (or following a steep power curve during a brainstorming session), the space remembers (or utilizing the spatial memory), stretching the mental memory and getting physical (by using means like sketching, mind mapping, diagrams etc). It also discusses about the six things that can kill a brainstormer. These include “The Boss gets to speak first”(or where the boss is first to solve the brainstomer), a situation where everybody gets a chance and no one really brainstorms, where experts only brainstorm, brainstorming at off sites, doing no ‘silly’ stuff and writing down everything. Thus, this paper basically discusses about the idea of brainstorming.

Anuradha Kulkarni 8:00:04 9/27/2016

The Perfect Brainstorm: This article gives an overview of brainstorming as a skill or an art. It states that this art helps in learning continuously and deliver more value, create more energy fostering more innovation. The article first explains the seven secrets involved for better brainstorming. They are sharpening the focus, implementing rules, numbering your ideas, build over an idea or take leap, understand the power of spatial memory, warm up by fast paced word game and physically map into diagrams, figures. This article also gives the effect of exercising brainstorming. Although it is a good exercise, if not done properly it can have a negative effect. The article further expands this though by listing out the 6 ways that can kill a brainstormed: having a dogma that only boss starts off the session, allowing every participant to talk in the limited time frame, allowing the experts to speak only, carrying out in outdoor recreational spots, don’t have silly stuff and jotting down notes. This article was a very good read stating that if brainstorming was exercised in a correct way and regularly, it can lead to new innovations and lead to faster improvement. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: This paper elaborated on the history system that present an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early- stage information design. This system presents the user with a detailed timeline of thumbnails of past designs, with the ability to filter these thumbnails by various criteria and the ability to have collapsible branched histories. According to the paper, the approach is straight forward where user creates new pages by writing on new notes and post them to electronic wall and organize a site by physically moving the notes around the board. The branched history problem mentioned in the paper states that solution is not complete due its complexity. This paper was very informative and interesting.