Mobile Interfaces - 2

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Haoran Zhang 21:04:13 9/28/2016

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: In this paper, authors proposed techniques that point users to objects located off-screen, like City Lights and Halo. But these two systems have problems, for example, City Lights convey only direction, and Halo conveys direction and distance, but is susceptible to clutter resulting from overlapping halos. Thus, authors presented a new system, called Wedge, it not only conveys direction and distance, but also avoids overlap and clutter. The system can adjust the size of the arcs automatically, to avoid overlapping. From user study, this system is better than others in some cases. Because it has a natural way to show the rings without overlapping. But Halo system is good at closest task, because the difference between distant and close off-screen objects was easier to determine with Halo, due to it has large visual difference in this case. From this paper, we can know that, there is no perfect technology, one thing is good for something, but bad for something else. We are trying a perfect solution, but sometime it is hard. We may only can good at some perspective. In addition, this paper also proposed some suggestion for designers, such as reduce overlap, rotation is better than overlap, corners need special attention, striking a balance. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: In this paper, authors present results from a field experiment to show effectiveness of mobile displays as a means for improving awareness of daily life. Authors developed a system call UbiFit, that is a stylized, abstract representation of physical activity behavior and goal attainment on a mobile display to encourage individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity into everyday life. This paper published in 2008, this is a tricky time point. Before that time, smart phone become more and more popular. And they become a life center after that time. We bring them to everywhere, after we wake up, before we go to bed. This a good reason that a smart phone can become a life manager of our life, and remind us to self-monitor properly. If we go to a application store, we can see that, there are a lot of applications that remind us to do something, like drink water, stand for 1 min, take a deep breath, so on so forth. The functionality in the background actually the same to UbiFit, to encourage to have a good habit. In addition, this paper also tell us how many potential the mobile displays have, we may use it to help people.

Zhenjiang Fan 0:45:54 10/4/2016

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations:::: The paper present a perfect visual representation of off-screen locations for the users that have been using small screen devices. I think the idea is simply brilliant and straightforward. The idea, Wedge, represents each off-screen location using an acute isosceles triangle: the tip coincides with the off-screen locations, and the two corners are located on the screen. A wedge conveys location awareness primarily by means of its two legs pointing towards the target. Given the fact that people are more and more dependent on mobile devices as their daily electronic companies and those devices inevitably must have small screens, so it is important for software programmers to present as much information to users as possible. The inefficient ways of these representations could cause more problems than just a small screen, so showing or implying the off-screen information to users is extremely important. The paper use mainly discusses its idea wedge, another common method halo, and their differences. Apparently, halo conveys off-screen information in a very confusing way, users usually get no clear messages off-screen. In contrary, wedge presents more information, given, of course, the users have already got used to the way of wedge presenting off-screen information. Given how straightforward the idea is, the users will be familiar with it in a short period of time. Overall, the paper's idea shows the benefits of the new visualization. These benefits are more pronounced when off-screen objects are clustered into corners, where wedges allow users to triangulate the location of off-screen objects more precisely. Wedge’s overlap-avoidance algorithm aids users in deter-mining direction and distance. Even though the author has been saying in the paper that wedge can solve the overlapping problems of off-screen info representation symbols, but from what I have seen from images presented by the paper, the overlapping problem is still there. Part of the reason may be the paper has been using the same color to demonstrate their cases. I think they should at least use different colors, especially for adjacent wedges. ::::::::::::::::::::::Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::Good on-screen representation of daily information could definitely benefit during daily life. In the paper's view, these visual representations— particularly the background screens and screen savers on mobile phones—are underutilized. At the core of the work presented in this paper is the notion that these always-available displays could be used to increase an individual’s awareness about various elements of daily life. Yet, there are still a lot of challenges on how to design some user interfaces that do not interfere with people normal life. The paper's main idea is to use stylized displays to encourage behavior change, self-monitoring and increase physical activity. UbiFit, the system the author's team has been working on, prompts the user to self-monitor; provides positive reinforcement rather than punishment; provides simple rewards for goal attainment and for performing the desired behavior; provides frequent opportunities for self-reflection by using the individual’s mobile phone, accounting for a range of physical activities, and using stylized, abstract representations of behavior. The paper used a three-months long experiment to collect data, that is pretty impressive. The experiment covered a wide range of audiences, which was a good thing to do. Mobile devices are playing more and more important role in our daily lives, so the paper did open a window for further improving people's activeness on each day life. I think there are more things that we could do to achieve the paper's original goal of this research by exploring more useful functions of mobile devices, such as sensors, audios and videos.

Tazin Afrin 20:38:29 10/4/2016

Critique of “Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations”: Wedge is a new technique to overcome the display limitation of small mobile interfaces to show or locate off screen locations. This new technique, represented by the authors overcomes a lot of limitations by the existing techniques called City Lights and Halo. The authors also present an algorithm for the clutter free visualization using wedge and conduct a user study to see how well Wedge does compare to existing methods. In general Wedge follows the general off screen visualization techniques used by the other method Halo based on the theory of amodal completion. Wedge uses distance and direction like Halo. But unlike Halo, Wedge can avoid clutter and overlap whereas Halo cannot avoid overlap. Wedge represents the off screen locations using an acute isosceles triangle, the two corner of the triangle always remains onscreen while the tip of the triangle coincides with the off screen location. While Halo uses circles, Wedge uses triangles and as a result Wedge has three degrees of freedom – rotation, aperture and intrusion. Overlap between wedges can be resolves by adjusting the triangles by changing according to the degrees of freedom. This process is repeated until there is no more clutter or overlap. The authors found out that the users feel Wedge to be more natural than Halo. Also because of the aperture and intrusion feature, the distance of object can be naturally interpreted using the length and degree of the triangle. I found the idea of using a triangle instead of circle very interesting. Because of the shape, the authors were able to have more advantage and freedom in their design and were able to introduce an algorithm for clutter free visualization. However, a blend between Halo and Wedge, where both circles and triangles are used could result more interesting observations. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Critique of “Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays”: In this paper the authors examine a new application on personal mobile display called UbiFit. This application helps to encourage people to increase their physical activity level by using catchy images. The authors also ran an experiment on a group of people with their system and found that their system works better to keep the users enthusiastic about physical activity. The authors attempt to utilize the part of mobile display that they think are not utilized properly. For example, the screen saver display is used to show some moving objects or just some beautiful pictures, but it may be quite useful to show users some useful information encoded into beautiful pictures. UbiFit uses a Glanceable display that uses the background of a phone and shows a picture of a garden to the user. But the flowers in the has different meanings and the garden changes as the user does more exercise. The interactive application alerts the user for fitness drop too. The authors ran the experiment during the winter holiday season and tried to alert the users for gaining more weight and not doing exercise regularly. Because that holiday season is the time when people tend to gain more weight. The result showed that the user, who used the system did more exercise and gained less weight. I personally found this study very interesting and intuitive. The idea of using metaphorical display on a mobile device is interesting. But I am not convinced that by using this application there will be more awareness for physical activity.

Alireza Samadian Zakaria 18:55:31 10/5/2016

The first paper is about a technique called Wedge that helps us to visualize some target points out of the screen. It is important to do such a thing regarding some situations in which we want to show a point in a map and our screen is not big enough. In these situations, we need to show that point of interest in a way. The author first provides us with some of the previous techniques based on distorting the space like fisheye view technique or arrow pointing. One of these previous methods is focused more in this paper which is Halo. This technique and the proposed one are both based on the theory of amodal perception, which suggests that the human visual system will complete parts of an object even when it is only partially visible. The author claims that Wedge has solved the issue of overlapping arcs which faces Halo. The technique is simple by itself, we represent a point by an incomplete wedge which its vertex is located on the point and the user is able to see legs and the base. Each wedge has three degrees of freedom which are rotation, aperture, and intrusion of a wedge. By using these degrees of freedom we can avoid overlap or describe the location and distance more accurately. To manipulate these characteristics of every wedge, the authors proposed an algorithm called the layout algorithm. In this method, we use longer legs for far objects and shorter ones for near points, the function used for this purpose is a nonlinear function. The aperture is calculated from the length of the legs and the distance. The rotation is also calculated by an iterative algorithm to avoid overlap. For evaluation, some participants were asked to use both of Halo and Wedge for some tasks, and then state which one they prefer for each task. The participants preferred Halo for one of the tasks and Wedge for the other two kinds of tasks. -------- The second paper is about an application called UbiFit. The authors have investigated the long-term effectiveness of using a representation of behavior on a mobile display to encourage regular and varied physical activity. Previously, some other projects and applications have been developed by others which were similar to UbiFit. UbiFit consists of three components: a display, an interactive application, and a fitness device. The fitness device is a device worn on the waistband above the hip which infers and transmits information about walking, running, and other similar activities to display and interactive application. However, I think it is not necessary today since most of the mobile phones do these kinds of measurements nowadays. The display is some image that resides on the background and it serves as an easily accessible reminder of the commitment to physical activity. It just uses positive reinforcement ant the individual is not punished for inactivity. Furthermore, the application provides us with information about daily activities and a way to add or edit and view goals. The goal of this paper is to show the result of a three-month experiment which intended to explore the effectiveness of display and fitness device components. In this experiment, they had three experimental conditions and 28 participants. The examination revealed the effect of Display on physical activities, it showed that the average activity duration for participants without glanceable display decreased over time. Other factors like BMI and gender did not have any significant effect; even the fitness device was not effective; it suggests that the glanceable display is the main contributor to helping participants maintain activities. At the end, the authors discuss some issues like the possible reasons that participants have not found fitness device helpful which were mainly because of size, battery life and needing to interact with mobile. However, these problems can be solved by today’s mobile phones which have sensors in themselves.

Anuradha Kulkarni 22:35:03 10/5/2016

Wedge: clutter-free visualization of off-screen location: This paper discusses about the visualization technique known as Wedge i.e. Providing location awareness in small screen devices. The main idea of this paper can be thought as a continuation of Halo i.e. convey direction and distance information using circle to show some information on off-screen locations. Wedge has three degrees of freedom i.e. rotation, aperture and intrusion of a wedge. In comparison with Halo, wedge provides two additional degrees of freedom. This has a huge impact in providing more information on small screen. Thus aiding the user to recognize faster. This paper gives an insight about the impact of Wedge in the field of visualization as whole and its performance with respect to Halo. Over all the paper was informative. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Flowers or a robot army? Encouraging awareness and activity with personal, mobile displays: This paper elucidates an awareness display system, UbiFit. This system aids in maintaining the physical activity level of an individual. The main idea behind this is to provide meaningful information for users. The papers explain in detail the three components of the UbiFit: a glanceable display, an interactive application and a fitness focused on the act of self-monitoring. This helps an individual to glance the phone to get information while preventing other users to understand anything. The paper provides good survey and depicts the results effectively. The paper is very informative and presents brilliant idea of transforming wallpaper in mobile phone into meaningful information. Although there are some challenges that need to be deciphered meticulously, the idea is brilliant.

nannan wen 23:26:45 10/5/2016

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualizations of Off-Screen Locations by Gustafson, S., Baudisch, P. et.al, review: In this paper, the author proposed a new technique which can display off screen locations to users in a mobile interface environment. The system use triangles to represent off-screen locations. The author compared their system with existing systems, and the results shows that their system has higher accuracy with optimized algorithms. I think the idea in this paper is interesting, labeling off-screen target from in-screen references is a novel idea. This system is based upon the theory that humans can complete the shape of an partially visible object, so that the algorithm can be designed to prevent overlapping parts. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays by Sunny Consolvo, Predrag Klasnja et.al. In this paper, the author examined an application called UbiFit which goal is to encourage awareness of one’s physical activity level in a mobile interface setting. I think this paper have a vision because in 2008 when the paper was published, few people see the importance of activity trackers and the underlying market. This workout app tries to motivate users to stay active throughout the day. I think the author did a excellent job in evaluating how different factors affects people’s attitude towards the app.

Xiaozhong Zhang 0:51:07 10/6/2016

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations The author introduced a new off-screen visualization technique, Wedge, which reduces the amount of overlap on the display. The author investigated the design space for this new technique; Wedge optimizes three valuable design principles that aid users in reducing interpretation costs and increasing accuracy. The wedge layout algorithm was designed to strike a balance between multiple factors; i.e., avoid overlap, provide accurate location information, and provide good distance cues. Wedge reduces clutter and is less prone to problems of corner-based clustering. The author carried out a study that showed significant accuracy advantages for the Wedge over the Halo; in addition, the author found that Halo and Wedge provide equally good cues to distance information. In future iterations of Wedge the author will augment distance cues, and the author will test the visualization with higher levels of clutter and other realistic tasks. Overall, the results indicate that Wedge is a simple but effective off-screen visualization technique that can enhance the utility of any application that relies on it. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays In this paper, the author described a system that the author built, UbiFit, which uses a stylized, abstract representation of physical activity behavior and goal attainment on a personal, mobile display to encourage individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity into everyday life. The author reported results of a field experiment in which 28 participants recruited from the general population used one of three versions of the UbiFit system for three months over the winter holiday season. UbiFit, the glanceable display in particular, was well-received. The author presented results that showed that participants who had the glanceable display were able to maintain their physical activity level over time and on holiday weeks, while the level of physical activity for participants in the condition who did not have the glanceable display dropped significantly. The author provided qualitative results that confirmed that participants appreciated the glanceable display and thought it was an essential component of the system. The work the author presented is novel as it examined the use of a stylized, aesthetic representation of behavior on a personal, mobile display with the aim of encouraging self-monitoring and behavior change. Additionally, the three-month field experiment is one of the longer-term deployments in the ubiquitous computing community where an early-stage, functional prototype was deployed in the field with representative users who were not affiliated with the research team or their company/institution.

Debarun Das 1:12:23 10/6/2016

“Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations”: This paper discusses the technology named “Wedge” which is a visualization technique that provides both direction and distance to objects located off screen. As an improvement over the previous technologies (“Halo” and “City Lights”), this technology prevent overlap and clutter. Since, “Wedge” uses acute isosceles triangles instead of circles, so it prevents overlap. The paper starts by discussing about the different related works. It uses the concept of ‘amodal perception’ which states that the human visual system will complete an incomplete object based on the parts of the object that is visible. The design of “Wedge” offers three degrees of freedom – rotation, aperture and intrusion of wedge. There three main goals that the design of “Wedge” tries to achieve. The first goal is to avoid overlap of the different isosceles triangles that give direction and distance. The second goal is to maximize the location accuracy provided by the wedge. The third goal is to act as an additional cue to help the user find the actual distance of the offline target. Further, the author goes on to describe the Wedge layout algorithm which manipulates intrusion depth, wedge aperture and rotation to attain the appropriate result. The user study and experiments conducted conclude that the “Wedge” technology performs better than “Halo” (especially in the corners) by attaining the above mentioned three goals. This paper provides an interesting read and significantly improves over previous technologies related to this area. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “Flowers or a robot army? : encouraging awareness & activity with personal, mobile displays”: This paper discusses about “UbiFit”, a software designed to notify and remind users to perform the required physical activity. The UbiFit system basically consists of three basic components: an awareness display, an interactive application and a fitness device. This paper discusses about a user study conducted that included twenty eight participants in three experimental conditions who used the “UbiFit” system over a period of three months (that expanded over a holiday season when people don’t go out to exercise in general). Interestingly, the exercise level of people who had an awareness display increased while the exercise level of users who do not have an awareness display did not improve much. This shows that the presence of an interactive interface with the help of a glanceable display is essential to help motivate the user to do physical activities regularly. This further proves that the constant reminders on the display screens on a cell phone would be more effective because of the regular use of cell phones in one’s daily life. Currently, there are many such applications and devices that serve this purpose like Fitbit, Nike Run+, etc. This paper thus successfully performs experimental study to justify the significance of utilizing mobile displays to help motivate users do regular physical exercise.

Steven Faurie 8:09:08 10/6/2016

Steve Faurie Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: This paper is a write up about a user study comparing two different ways of indicating the direction and distance of objects off screen. Halos, which are circles around each off screen object of interest are compared with wedges. Wedges attempt to do the same thing by placing the tip of a triangle at the location of the off screen object and using the width of the base of the triangle to indicate relative distance of wedge objects. Smaller triangle bases are generally closer. At first glance it appears wedges offer the user more information in a way that is initially more obvious than halos. The authors discussed an interesting perceptual theory they used in designing the system. It was the theory of amodal perception. Basically the theory says that humans will tend to “complete” an obscured object. Thus if a person sees part of a circle or part of a triangle they will intuitively know that the object is a circle or triangle even if they can’t see the whole thing. This is why a system like wedges or circles is understandable to people. Part of the paper discussed the design of wedge. The authors pointed out some advantages wedges have over halos. For instance, a wedge can be rotated and still point to the same object. A circle with the object in the center cannot. A wedge can change the angle at the point of the triangle and the base will change the length of the base visible on screen. All of these properties can be used to help avoid overlap. Making the display simpler for the users. The experiment asked users to click off screen where they expected object to be, avoid things that were indicated by wedges or halos and select the closest off screen object to an onscreen point. The results were presented using ANOVA analysis of error rates. The authors concluded that users were able to more accurately locate off screen objects with wedge, but both wedge and halo were equally good at conveying distance. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness and Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: The paper describes the development of a fitness tracking prototype called Ubifit. The related works section described several interesting previous works, including a sculpture that would slump over the longer a user was inactive and a virtual fish whose health and wellbeing was tied to the “owners” step count. They also noted a program call Healthy Lifestyle Coach that required the user to self-report things like diet. Ubifit took things from each of these systems. An interesting part of the Ubifit system was the screen background fitness indicator. Which slowly grew a garden that would grow more and more lush as the user completed fitness goals. Flower and butterfly types were representative of the type of goal met. The system also incorporated a fitness tracking device. During the experimental phase there were three setups. The full system: phone and tracker, phone only, and fitness device without the display. The study was conducted over the holidays and the authors noted that people with the display option better maintained their previous activity levels. The fitness device tended not to have the same effect although the authors noted this could be due to poor design. It might be interesting to see if a nicer tracking device like a Fit Bit returned better results.

Zuha Agha 9:12:35 10/6/2016

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualizations of Off-Screen Locations In this paper the authors propose a technique to detect and visualize off-screen locations called Wedge. The method uses isosceles triangles where the vase of the triangle represents screen boundary and the tip indicates out of screen location. Using such a layout allows Wedge to overcome the problem of overlap while providing effective distance, direction and location cues in a clutter-free environment. Evaluation was conducted by comparing Wedge to another existing systems for off-screen location detection called Halo. Results showed that Wedge outperformed Halo and was much more accurate. In my opinion, the paper makes a great contribution and its strength lies in it its sound experimentation and evaluation methodology. ======================================================= Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays In this paper, the paper presents an application UbiFit for monitoring a person’s physical activity level and assist in goal attainment using a mobile. It conducts a field experiment to evaluate the usefulness of the monitoring application by comparing the performance of participants with and without UbiFit. Three versions of the application were tested on 28 users over a duration of three months. Results showed that UbiFit with the glanceable display had the highest appeal and participants who adopted it were able to maintain their routine of physical exercise and activity much more effectively. Overall, I found the application proposed in the paper was very innovative and resonates well with many of us who have a difficult time attaining our exercise goals.