Social Computing 1

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SMART criteria

Readings

Reading Critiques

Zhenjiang Fan 16:42:47 10/29/2016

BEYOND BEING THERE::::::::::::::To create a vision that people can have a face-to-face feeling through some kind of advanced technologies is beyond the reach of computer science and related technologies such as media etc, in my view. The paper states that the general telecommunication problem seems to be to create a system that affords us the same richness and variety of interaction that we have when we are physically proximate, even when people are physically distant. It also noticed that many current efforts to accomplish this attempt to create a sense of “being there,”. chiefly by establishing audio and video channels between distant locations. And any system which attempts to bring those that are physically distant into a physically proximate community by imitating physical proximity will always keep the former at a disadvantage. This is not because of the quality of the systems, but because of what they attempt to achieve. Even though the paper hopes to solve the telecommunication problem and mentions people must develop tools that people prefer to use even when they have the option of interacting in physical proximity as they have heretofore. To do that requires tools that go beyond being there. To create such tools, the paper suggests framing the problem in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. The goal then becomes identifying needs which are not ideally met in the medium of physical proximity, and evolving mechanisms which leverage the strengths of the new medium to meet those needs. But the paper failed to provide any actual proposal to make this virtually physical proximity vision become a reality. I don't think framing the problem in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms could realize this vision. ::::::::::::::::::Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers::::::::::::::::::::::To develop a good groupware is very difficult task to do. Given the fact, there are lots of different demands from different group members, so satisfying every demand of every group member is almost impossible. To come up with a great solution for the development of groupware, we need to know what are the real problems are. The problems that groupware developers have to face are: the disparity in work and benefit; critical mass and prisoner's dilemma problems; disruption of social processes; exception handling; unobtrusive accessibility; difficulty evaluation; failure of intuition and adoption process. Every problem can be solved through careful thinking. The first solution is that groupware could be extended from the single-user software by adding some specific features. By combining the good features of current groupware together is another way to improve the usefulness of groupware. Object oriented management could be another way to boost the growth of groupware. Finding as many ways as possible to benefit every group member can be taken into consideration too. Because there are lots of kinds of groupware in terms of application usage, so I think categorizing groupware into different application types and then specifically learning each of these application types and specifically, developing relative functions for each groupware is a way that the paper failed to mention.

Zhenjiang Fan 16:46:56 10/29/2016

BEYOND BEING THERE::::::::::::::To create a vision that people can have a face-to-face feeling through some kind of advanced technologies is beyond the reach of computer science and related technologies such as media etc, in my view. The paper states that the general telecommunication problem seems to be to create a system that affords us the same richness and variety of interaction that we have when we are physically proximate, even when people are physically distant. It also noticed that many current efforts to accomplish this attempt to create a sense of “being there,”. chiefly by establishing audio and video channels between distant locations. And any system which attempts to bring those that are physically distant into a physically proximate community by imitating physical proximity will always keep the former at a disadvantage. This is not because of the quality of the systems, but because of what they attempt to achieve. Even though the paper hopes to solve the telecommunication problem and mentions people must develop tools that people prefer to use even when they have the option of interacting in physical proximity as they have heretofore. To do that requires tools that go beyond being there. To create such tools, the paper suggests framing the problem in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. The goal then becomes identifying needs which are not ideally met in the medium of physical proximity, and evolving mechanisms which leverage the strengths of the new medium to meet those needs. But the paper failed to provide any actual proposal to make this virtually physical proximity vision become a reality. I don't think framing the problem in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms could realize this vision. ::::::::::::::::::Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers::::::::::::::::::::::To develop a good groupware is very difficult task to do. Given the fact, there are lots of different demands from different group members, so satisfying every demand of every group member is almost impossible. To come up with a great solution for the development of groupware, we need to know what are the real problems are. The problems that groupware developers have to face are: the disparity in work and benefit; critical mass and prisoner's dilemma problems; disruption of social processes; exception handling; unobtrusive accessibility; difficulty evaluation; failure of intuition and adoption process. Every problem can be solved through careful thinking. The first solution is that groupware could be extended from the single-user software by adding some specific features. By combining the good features of current groupware together is another way to improve the usefulness of groupware. Object oriented management could be another way to boost the growth of groupware. Finding as many ways as possible to benefit every group member can be taken into consideration too. Because there are lots of kinds of groupware in terms of application usage, so I think categorizing groupware into different application types and then specifically learning each of these application types and specifically, developing relative functions for each groupware is a way that the paper failed to mention.

nannan wen 22:26:41 10/30/2016

Beyond being there by Hollan, J. and Stornetta, S. Review: In this paper, the author discussed the goal of telecommuniation in the future, which was a device that imitates being with a distant individual as closely as possible. The author holds the opinion that this device is for those who has difficulties meeting with the other person face to face. The author also suggests that it’s better if we can built a device which contains the advantage that video interface has over physical reality. Take archive conversation automatically, and provide annoymous communication for example. Then the author give some examples on computer-mediated communication who provide successful communication service. Then the author also provide another example “computing personals”. I think this paper presented an good idea on how should telecommunication look like in the future, this can help people communicate better over long distance. I think this is very important because people get to talk to each other over long distance. Groupware and Social Dynamics by Jonathan Grudin, Review: This paper mainly talked about groupware applications, and what kind of support do they need to make these applications successful for both developers and users. The author holds the idea that and software designed and used to support groups are groupware, examples for these applications are videoconferencing, co-authoring applications, b-boards and workflow systems. One of the challenges for such a device is that the companies who produced these kind of groupware applications are the same companies that produced the single user applications. At the time that this paper is published, groupware apps are protected that they will be abandoned in the near future, but as we can see today, it’s not true since groupware apps are still strive. The author also listed a bounch of specific challenges that developers of groupware have to overcome, and some solutions for these challenges. The difficulties include how to make the product reach the intended audience as planned with a timely manner, how to understand and accommodate the user who uses the software, how to do design and evaluation of the software.

Alireza Samadian Zakaria 16:21:58 10/31/2016

Beyond Being, There is a paper talking about imitating face to face communication in long distance electronic communications. At first, it says telecommunications researchers are working under the assumption that there is a perfect state of being there and that our state is in some sense broken when we are not physically proximate and they try to attempt to restore us to the state of being there. However, the author discusses that it is not a good idea. To elaborate an alternative approach to the telecommunication problem, the authors frame human communication in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. There is an example about email in this article, it says email has been successful; however, it does not try to imitate face to face communication. Then, some of the advantages are surveyed that we can have in electronic communication and we don’t have them in face to face communication such as anonymity or meeting others easily. At the end, it is concluded that we should create a tool that people prefer to use it even if they have the option of interacting face to face and that is a research direction in the field of communication. ------------- Groupware and Social Dynamics: This paper is about challenges facing a developer of the software designed for group working. According to the paper, many software has been developed for this purpose and most of them were a failure. Groupware is something in the middle of application for individuals and organization systems. It is not the same thing as organization systems since groupware is off the shelf most of the time; whereas, organization systems are derived by contract. The paper introduces eight challenges for groupware. The first challenge is that groupware applications require additional work from people who do not get direct benefits from the use of the application. Furthermore, they can be used as a tool for violating social taboos. In addition, there are many unpredicted exceptions in these applications and it is hard to handle them properly. In addition to mentioned and unmentioned systematic problems, there are other new problems like marketing issues. At the end, after mentioning email as a successful example of groupware, the author provides us with some methods that can help overcome the behavioral and social challenges; for example, it is mentioned that we can extend the use of a single-user application by adding some new features to support groups.

Anuradha Kulkarni 22:04:00 10/31/2016

Beyond Being There- This paper mainly intends to illustrate an idea. It presents an idea about future technology in telecommunication. This idea aims at helping people to communicate better over long distance not physically close to each other. This papers gives an insight about some viewpoint in design and technology thus bringing non-face-to-face communication give a feeling of face-to-face communication. This paper is not recent. We can see such applications that are available to us like Skype, Facetime, Google Duo, etc where people can communicate via video. Although this is a good thing in one way that you connect to people whom you are close to, but it’s not good to interact with strangers in the same way. No doubt these recent application have authentication check before being able to do video call. There needs to be still some development with respect to protecting against such conditions. This paper was a good read. It shows how these applications that are available to us now was based on a paper that goes back to 1992. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers- This paper discusses about the origins of groupware, describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group-settings. It mainly gives an insight about definition and understanding of groupware, which can help developers have a viewpoint to design differently than software for individual. The paper points out eight challenges when developing groupware, which includes: Disparity in work and benefit, critical mass and prisoner’s dilemma problems, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty of evaluation, failure of intuition, and adoption process. This paper discusses the challenges involved in developing specific type of applications. This paper is explained well and with much more detail.

Tazin Afrin 23:49:47 10/31/2016

Critique of “Beyond Being There”: In this paper the goal for telecommunication research is discussed. The ultimate goal was to create a machine that will act as if an individual human on distant communication is really near. But the authors, Hollan and Stornetta argues that, this will eventually never be similar to actually meeting a human being in person. The exception is if meeting the person is impossible. But this research will never result in creating a machine worthy of the communication. So the authors think that, geographically distant people will always be not advanced socially. So the authors argue that the researchers should instead change the way of thinking. Instead of trying to building a machine that imitated closeness, the researchers should go beyond being with another human. The authors suggest to find what advantage a video interface has over a physical reality. As an example, a video conversation can automatically archive the conversation. It can also support anonymous communication. The authors also discussed some communication oriented methods that do not necessarily works towards imitated in person conversation, rather has other advantages. They described a ‘computing personnel’, that is a similar to the recent successful social media – Facebook, Twitter etc. This media also helps people find individual with similar interest. Also diversity and culture has a lot of effect on this type of communication media. Now-a-days this communication media has expanded towards short videos and pictures like Vine and Instragram. Also these social media is creating its own culture online it has already started impact on our social life where we actually meet real human in person. On an extreme case, for some people, the social media world is more real than the real world.

Xiaozhong Zhang 1:48:39 11/1/2016

BEYOND BEING THERE In this paper the author highlighted problems with this presupposition, that a belief in the efficacy of imitating face-to-face communication is an unquestioned presupposition of most current work on supporting communications in electronic media, and presented an alternative proposal for grounding and motivating research and development that frames the issue in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. To help elaborate the proposal the author sketched a series of example projects and responded to potential criticisms. To summarize, the author's arguments can be divided into three parts: 1. The general telecommunication problem seems to be to create a system that affords us the same richness and variety of interaction that the author have when the author are physically proximate, even when the author are physically distant. 2. Many current efforts to accomplish this attempt to create a sense of "being there" chiefly by establishing audio and video channels between distant locations. 3. Any system which attempts to bring those that are physically distant into a physically proximate community by imitating physical proximity will always keep the former at a disadvantage. This is not because of the quality of the systems, but because of what they attempt to achieve. Groupware and social dynamics: eight challenges for developers The article briefly outlined the origins of groupware, describes eight specific problem areas, and finally examines groupware successes in search of better approaches to supporting work in group settings. The paper stated that computer support has focused on organizations and individuals, but groups are different. It claimed that repeated, expensive groupware failures result from not meeting the challenges in design and evaluation that arise from these differences. The eight challenges for groupware developers are: disparity in work and benefit, critical mass and Prisoner's dilemma problems, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty of evaluation, failure of intuition and finally the adoption process. The paper then cited some successful example of groupware like desktop conferencing, videoconferencing, coauthoring features and applications, email and bulletin boards (b-boards), meeting support systems, voice applications, workflow systems, and group calendars are key examples of groupware. At the end, the paper warned that although successes exist, the progress is slow and can lead in unanticipated directions.

Keren Ye 3:06:14 11/1/2016

Beyond Being There The paper highlights the problems of telecommunication and present an alternative proposal for grounding and motivating research and development that frames the issue in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. The authors then propose the idea of being there: “solve the telecommunication problem by creating a sense of being there, by establishing some form of audio and video connections between two distant locations”. However, there are limitation of “being there”, thus the paper elaborates an alternative approach to the telecommunication problem. The general idea is that not focus on the “tele-” part but the “communication” part, which means make the new medium satisfy the needs of communication so that people prefer to use it. To further illustrate the proposal to focus on communication, the paper offers several sampling of projects which are in various stages of development. The ephemeral interest group is to create a mechanism that allows a short-lived discussion to be attached to any object in a community’s electronic “space”. Thus items on electronic calendar can provide a seed for an ephemeral interest group. The meeting others provide users with a sort of electronic persona that provides people with access to information about others. This improves the opportunities for initiation of informal communication. Use of semisynchronous mechanisms would encourage a greater range of responses than the normal asynchronous or synchronous mechanisms. In sum, the key points of the paper is to highlight communication rather than connection. In other words, any systems which try to make humans physically closer have their own limitation. Instead, the authors suggest to frame the problem in terms of needs, media, and mechanisms. The goal then becomes identifying needs which are not ideally met in the medium of physical proximity. Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers The paper focus on discussing about groupware rather than individuals and organizations support. Different from its counterpart, failures of groupwares are not due to technical problems but due to the lack of understanding of the unique demands. In the further discussion, eight challenges for groupware are proposed. These include: 1) Disparity in work and benefit. 2) Critical mass and Prisoner’s dilemma problems. 3) Disruption of social process. 4) Exception handling. 5) Unobtrusive accessibility. 6) Difficulty of evaluation. 7) Failure of intuition. 8) The adoption process. In the conclusion part, several methods helping to overcome the behavioral and social challenges are proposed. These include extend the use of single-user application in group setting by adding groupware features; Find niches where existing groupware succeeds; Build on object management of shared IS that have fared better than those that incorporate elements of organizational structure and work process; Find ways to provide direct benefits for all group members; To better understand the decision-making processes in development.

Steven Faurie 8:13:09 11/1/2016

Steve Faurie: Beyond Being There: This is an older paper that talks about the ideal means of communication. They describe how being in close proximity to each other is considered the easiest way to communicate. Most research at the time was focused on making distant communication easier by attempting to replicate normal face to face human interaction via a solution like a teleprompter. They point out this might not be the case. For instance new means of communication can let people communicate asynchronously, anonymously and do some sort of archiving. They point out the success of email as the most obviously successful computer aided communication technique. Several other examples are given including Ephemeral Interest Groups which seem to be essentially what we would consider a “forum” these days but where things don’t stick around forever. Meeting Others is essentially a simplified version of Facebook for making friends. Their Anonymity section describes the types of interactions that happen on a site like Reddit. The thing the authors wish to create is something that uses computers to advance human interaction beyond what is possible using only face to face communication. They propose an Auditory Paper as something that will be even better than actually being there. It will allow users to respond clearly and precisely to what they are seeing and they believe at some point the ability to communicate using a system like this will be preferable to face to face communication…………Groupware and social dynamics: Eight Challenges For Developers: Groupware is defined as something in-between single user applications and large organization wide mainframe systems. They talk about using groupware as an electronic meeting room or workflow management system. Both of these are commonplace in the modern workplace. You might have a video conference using skype and then overview what your team is doing today using Jira. Some barriers for groupwares success were work vs benefit. Is the work of entering data into and interacting with groupware worth the time it takes to do? I know from experience it can be. If you have a work tracking tool like Jira, team members can grab tasks assign them to themselves. This keeps two people from doing the same work twice. They also talk about how you need the majority of group members to actually use the software. You also need to make sure the groupware works within the social environment of the group. It needs to handle what they call exceptions. It can’t assume things are always done the way you expect. Also relatively infrequently used but necessary features need to be as accessible as the more commonly used features. It needs to be unobtrusive and accessible or people won’t use it. This sort of relates to the first issue of cost/benefit. Evaluating the groupware you’ve created can be difficult too. It might take much longer to figure out what is and isn’t working. You need to study how an entire group is interacting with the product, not just observe one user of the course of an hour or so. An interesting point made in the article is how developers tend to look at the problem from a technological perspective. But to make a successful product you should be designing it from the perspective of a user in the workplace. You need to make it for the people actually using it.

Debarun Das 8:42:04 11/1/2016

 “Beyond being there”::: This paper discusses about the idea where people can communicate over long distances more effectively than communicating face to face. It discusses about the future scope and technology in telecommunication for attaining this idea. It discusses about several projects that aims to provide the feeling of “being there” for non-face to face communication. The use of a combination of audio and visual communication was thought as one of the best solutions to 'imitate' the face to face interaction for long distance communication, by the author. The different projects and prototypes discussed here gives an idea of the early attempts to develop such technology. This is an old paper (written in 1992) but the ideas provided here can be seen in several technologies today, like Skype and Google Hangout. Therefore, the significance of this paper is that it served as a foundation for such ideas and concepts. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers”: This paper discusses about the idea of “Groupware” and also discusses about eight challenges to develop “groupwares”. These challenges are disparity in work and benefits, critical  mass and Prisoner’s Dilemma problem, disruption of social processes, exception handling, unobtrusive accessibility, difficulty to evaluation, failure of intuition and the adoption process. It also discusses about a new challenge here called managing acceptance. The author then discusses about email that acts as a groupware successfully. This paper thus provides a basic understanding of the social conditions and challenges needed to be taken care of for the development of groupware projects.  

Zuha Agha 9:16:30 11/1/2016

Beyond being there:In this paper the author talks about enhancing distant communication to make it as real as face-to-face interaction. The author believes that the goal of such a communication medium should not only be to facilitate geographically distant entities but it should also focus on what would make individuals who are physically close to one another to adopt this channel. The author supports this idea by discussing several benefits of distant communication such as the ability to save conversations, ephemeral interest groups, meeting others, anonymity and asynchronous discussions. The author also discusses other social aspects that affect the adoption of communication technology including habits and culture etc. Overall, the paper provided great insight into the future of telecommunication at that time, a lot of what we can see in social media applications today including Facebook, Whatsapp and so on.=================================================== Groupware and Social Dynamics:In this paper, the author discusses the pros and cons of groupware applications and the factors that affect their adoption. Groupware are applications that allow collaboration in groups such as videoconferencing, coauthoring applications, workflow systems etc. The challenges for groupware applications identified in the paper including issues of design, evaluation, production and understanding the user needs. This is at a time when groupware applications were being introduced and not as mainstream as they are today, so it was difficult to predict the success of these applications. Today, a lot of groupware applications are commonly being used including Skype, Facetime, Google Docs, GotoMeeting etc for collaborative work and remote meetings. These applications have overcome many of the issues addressed in this paper, however a lot still needs to be done to improve such tools especially when it comes to supporting larger groups, which makes the paper relevant in today’s context as well.