Design Process and Support Tools

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Reading Critiques

Spencer Gray 12:02:24 9/30/2017

In the first paper, Capturing and Interacting with Design History, the authors created a system for collaborative design focusing on website developement. They stressed the importance of understanding the design history during a project and provided three mechanisms for accessing it: the main timeline, the local timeline, and the synopisis. This paper is significant in that it is an early form of version control. Currently, most software companines use version control all in software such as Git. Git provides many of the features that the authors' extension on Designers' Outpost included such as the main timeline and local timelines. The synopsis can be seen in Git by examining commit messages and the readme files. Thus, the paper was important as a stepping stone to reach the modern solutions of version control that we have today. If I were to rewrite this paper, I would not focus on just website development. To me, the system that the authors created could be applied to any problem solving process. I am unsure why the authors limited it to just web design. In the second paper, The Perfect Brainstorm, the author explains the importance of brainstorming in creating innovative ideas in a company. The author describes both good and bad approaches to the process of brainstorming. Most people believe they brainstorm well, but the author shows that it is an underappreciated and underused strategy to produce original ideas. This paper is significant because the hardest part in development is coming up with ideas. For instance, it is easy to implement an algorithm, but it is difficult to design it. Changing the way we produce ideas can lead to better and more innovative solutions. This can increase the quality of an overall product and possibly reduce the time it takes to design that product.

Kadie Clancy 11:37:04 10/1/2017

The Perfect Brainstorm: This paper argues that, while many people think that they “brainstorm,” they are not harnessing the its full potential. Brainstormers, as the author calls them, are sessions that deliver energy, add value and create more innovation within an organization. The author outlines secrets for better brainstorming including: starting with a well-defined problem statement, numbering generated ideas, writing down the flow of ideas in a visible place for the group, and include sketching, diagrams, mappings and figures. By following these secrets, the employees of IDEO are able to use brainstormers to foster a creative and innovative work environment. I think the author makes a good point, that brainstorming can be a good tool for development. In my opinion, brainstorming about an idea for a system allows a group to consider many ideas on the spectrum of possible problem solutions. This lets a team consider the limits of solutions to have a better understanding of which idea will work best. Also, if the initial idea doesn’t work, brainstorming provides many backup plans to consider. I also think that including non experts in brainstorming sessions can be very useful. Designers are taught to think in a certain way, and will consequently come up with similar ideas. Adding someone who will view the final product from a different perspective will allow different, and possibly better, ideas to be generated in a brainstorming session. Where Do Websites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: This paper presents an informal capture and retrieval system for collaborative information design implemented via an extension of Designers’ Outpost. This system attempts to give designers access to the history (including other versions of their design) during early stages of the website design: a time when many designers traditionally user post-it note and whiteboard structures during meetings. The system utilizes a SmartBoard and physical post-it notes. Physical paper becomes an input device when placed on the board. History is the central feature of the system with three different visualizations: a main timeline, a local timeline, and a synopsis view. This allows users to view history incrementally, view the history of a particular object, or view the history for a particular user. The system also supports multi-level undo and redo by use of branched history. The authors use informal design studies and an iterative design process to continually make improvements to their system. This speaks to the importance of the iterative design process. Continually getting user feedback and redesigning make the product makes it more accommodating to potential users. I also think using physical post-it notes as input to the system allows users to interact naturally. This shows the importance of doing research on potential users to give them functionality that will allows a computer to fade into the background allowing users to be focused only on the goal that they are trying to accomplish.

Krithika Ganesh 13:44:52 10/1/2017

Where do websites come from? This paper proposes a system which transitions from pen, paper, walls to large electronic wall with a tangible interface for informal history capturing and retrieval mechanism that supports collaborative and early stage information design. The three mechanisms for accessing design as per the paper are: main timeline, local time line and synopsis view. The paper draws inspiration from previous work like WeMet and AudioNotebook to come up with the feature of bookmarking history and work like Chimera to design their global timeline. The history interface was design such that, the timeline visualization had 2 types of filters: activity filters included by actions, by bookmarks and by meeting and inferred filters like by time, by note and by author, the timeline navigation was a combination of user actions and history manipulations and the most interesting feature was merging the branched action history with the linearity of a single stranded history to preserve the entire history by having the current strand for the current active state and the stubs (inactive branches) to represent previous states. This system was implemented by storing the command objects in tree shaped data structure with branches including the following commands: add note, remove note, move note , add link and add link annotation. It is to be noted that efficiency was not their focus and it was designed only for medium sized designs, failing to explain what medium size means. They had 6 professional designers to offer feedback and I strongly feel 6 is too small a number for the same. It’s been around 15 years since the paper got published and none of us use an electronic wall interface for collaboration, perhaps due to ubiquitous computing and emergence of cloud, we all use TeamViewer, Skype and Hangouts for collaboration. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The Perfect Brainstorm: The author believes that one can deliver more value, energy and innovation through the skill of better brain storming which most of us take for granted. According to the author there are 7 secrets for better brain storming. To be a good at brainstorming, one needs to focus on a well-defined problem statement, not critique or debate ideas, number ideas as they come on giving importance to the quality of the idea, start slow and then build up energy as ideas flow, make a note of the flow of ideas, have some warm up activities to keep the group comfortable and familiar with each other, have some actual physical objects to demo the idea and in effect one gains more respect and confidence. The author also mentions 6 pitfalls which leads to poor brain storming: being authoritative or too accommodating by giving everyone a chance, calling only experts in the field for brain storming, having the session off-site which may be distracting and will deviate one’s focus, no silly discussions and not end up writing everything that is discussed as that would be more of absorption of ideas and less contribution. Overall, I felt the discussion was quite intuitive, but it’s more like a reminder to all of us to be aware of the do’s and don’ts while brain storming. It is important to not only HCI but any research field as it leads to emergence of new innovative ideas.

Ahmed Magooda 21:59:14 10/1/2017

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History In this paper the authors introduces a history system that can be used for collaborative web designing activities. The system can be used to add notes and drawings while interacting with it using pen and other forms of input like recorded data etc.., these notes and drawings can be changed later and the system responsibility is keeping track of the changes happened and providing ways to add justifications and notes. The system captures the history and provides three mechanisms to access it. The first mechanism is a main time line; which displays the history using thumbnails while providing some filtering capabilities and some non-linear undo redo manipulation. The second mechanism is the local time line which shows a lighter weight history for an individual object. The third mechanism is synopsis visualization which is based on the explicit user bookmarks or a set of filters. The authors asked some designer for feedback on using the system, most users enjoyed their interaction with the design history system, however some features such as frequent auto-bookmarking needed improvement. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The Perfect Brainstorm: In this chapter the author is discussing the idea of brainstorming and how it can be a talent or a something that needs practising not just something that everyone can do equivalently out of no where. The author then discuses what can be done to make the brainstorming procedure more productive and efficient and what the rule that can a person or a group play to enhance the brainstorming process. The author introduces seven practices that can lead to efficient brainstorming, these seven practices are; Sharpen the focus, try to clarify the problem statement. Playful rules, don't criticize all the time, let the thoughts flow. Number the ideas. Build and jump. The space remembers, try to provide a constant flow of the ideas so that it can always be clear what have been done so far. Stretch mental muscles. Get physical, which means discuss with more visual elements. The author then go on by discussing six behaviours that can be harmful to the brainstorming process (The boss gets to speak first. Everybody gets a turn. Experts only please. Do it off-site. No silly stuff. Write down everything). I think this chapter is interesting to read and somehow highlights some simple rules that can turn out to be helpful in reshaping brainstorming meetings.

Mingzhi Yu 11:18:25 10/2/2017

The perfect brainstorm: This article discussed how people usually brainstorm, how important it is and how can we improve the skill of brainstorm. The author came up with 7 techniques about brainstorm--Sharpen the focus, Number Your Ideas, Build and Jump, The Space Remembers, Stretch Your mental Muscles and Get Physical. All above techniques seem very familiar and general to me. When we brainstorm, we more or less have used all these techniques but never summarized them. And it also talked about the normal pitfalls that people sometimes have when brainstorming. I agreed most of them, but in general, I feel most of them are more suitable for industry. For example, the idea of "EXPERTS ONLY PLEASE", obviously, in the industry you could achieve this standard easily because you can always invite a member from another team to increase the diversity of your discussion group. However, in school, most of the participants will only be students. Of course, you can invite students from other major to increase the expertise of your team, but most of the experts will still be students and probably not the real experts you expect. Where do websites come from? Capturing and interacting with Design History: The authors introduced a new design control system that will let the users and designers view the past design history easily. The novel visualizations for collaborative they developed are a stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline and an annotated synopsis view. All these three visualizations sound very familiar to me. It reminds me the interface of repository management. The branching ideas are exactly the same as this paper provides. Also, the concepts of using local timeline visualization and mainline visualization are very similar to how we use the repo mainline and local copy of repo. The author also mentioned the synopsis visualization of the timeline. I personally think this idea is a little bit troublesome as a developer even though the user experiment shows its usefulness. In general, this paper provides a design history tracking system and interface design ideas. It emphasizes the important role that the design history plays in a project development and trigger some further thinking about version control and history management of a project.

Tahereh Arabghalizi 17:21:28 10/2/2017

Where Do Web Sites Come From? In this paper, the authors presented an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative design of information architectures. The history system extends the Designers’ Outpost. They introduce three novel history visualizations for collaborative early-phase design: a stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline, and an annotated synopsis view. One of the best features of the system is multiple featuring types. This feature allows for a selectivity of how to review the information in the past. The only danger of this feature is if the affordable of the user does not map to the output of the filter. Six professional web site designers evaluated the system. They were excited about the functionality with the exception of garish interactions like constantly updating history thumbnails. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a term that is used for group discussions trying to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering list of ideas. It can be considered as a friendly environment for participants to show their skills. There are a few ways to improve brainstorming: -The start point in a brainstormer is the discussion topic. Having a description of the problem with the right level of specificity directs group discussion. - Rules should be defined for a brainstormer. These are better to be printed beforehand or reminded during discussion. - It is better to number, since brings us two advantages, motivating participants and jumping back and forth while still keeping track of discussion. - In power curve, momentum starts slowly, then continues intensely and finally starts to plateau. It is important to jump from plateau by asking new questions to directing the discussion to another high power point. - During brainstorming no meeting noting is needed. - Warming up participants’ brains is needed in cases which members aren’t familiar with each other.-Make brainstormers as more physical as you can. Present ideas in visual formats by any tool you are capable of working with. The sessions should be dynamic. Considering turn for members to express their ideas kills the spirit of throwing wild ideas. We need variety of ideas, thus people from different fields are needed. Having some fun and silly stuff makes the members more productive and energetic.

Jonathan Albert 19:44:05 10/2/2017

Perfect Brainstorm: This document discusses the importance of brainstorming, stressing that brainstorming is itself a skill. It goes on to list dos and don'ts. The author's suggestion is simple: get people to think regularly. Yet, his admonition is not to a platonic pondering about pondering, but to a habit of free-form spit-balling. It is almost humorous, but it does offer an interesting way to gamify or de-stress the act of creating something novel. While ostensibly geared towards a corporate setting, these ideas could be applied in academia as well. I wonder if this method could enhance a field as abstract as mathematics. Brainstorming on the surface seems more apropos to design--to the act of pulling things together, rather than extracting a truth out of known axioms. Then again, the dryness of science and math may be the "manager" that always speaks first. In this case, it says "do not contradict." Nevertheless, I wonder what a few debunkable illustrations would do to illumine possible routes in today's harder fields. ---- Website History: This paper advertises a system for viewing the history of a brainstorming session. It explains how it achieves its goal by the system's various functions. The concept of storing and representing a user's branching edit history is almost completely missing from today's software. With the exception of source code control programs, I doubt if any UIs display more than one stream of edits. This is understandable for image or video processing software, where a single undo could reverse a long-running, multi-step calculation. Nevertheless, these programs could benefit substantially from allowing users to quickly run "what-ifs" without having to render two basically similar scenes for eight hours each. Despite the nuances this system provides, I think its reliance on paper notes, physically attached to the board, was shortsighted. Though I personally prefer analog methods of note taking, I notice that transferring between graphite-speckled paper and DOCX formats can quickly become tedious.All of the hardware employed in capturing the shape, size, content, and position of the physical note seems completely unnecessary when one can draw electronically lines between the posted notes; if I can draw virtual shapes, I can also write virtually. Now, if the history bar was applied to something like OneNote, it might make more sense.

Amanda Crawford 19:47:30 10/2/2017

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History, Scott R. Klemmer, Michael Thomsen, et al ACM CHI 2002 This research focuses on the Designers' Outpost history system tool through capture and access. The tool provided a user with it's design history to further discover new ways of achieving a design using a branched history data structure. The three mechanisms that were discussed in the paper, were the main timeline, the local timeline, and the synopsis view. The main timeline consisted of an interface that uses thumbnails to represent at a captured time element. The timeline could be filtered by activity and inferred filters. Since the main time line provided a heavy set of operations and options to traverse through all of the elements, the local timeline provided a condensed form of viewing the history of a specific element. The synopsis visualization gave the user the ability to navigate and view the structure of the timeline based on a branched or collapsed linear styled display. Additionally, a user could bookmark important elements through this feature. The user study results showed that although the capability to capture and access the history of a users' design process is truly enhancing, the complexity of identifying important elements was difficult. I believe that this is a very powerful tool, as one may need to remember, the "why" behind selecting an idea. It is the "why" that sticks and gives the user the flexibility to edit and make powerful improvements. This research also showed that there is still an important need for context awareness within HCI designs. The user study showed that a system should be contextually aware to select important elements that a designer may need. • The Perfect Brainstorm. The Art of Innovation. Kelley. In this short read, Kelly conveys that brainstorming is a learned skilled and must be practiced regularly. The key to expanding your idea bank and developing good products is through the process of a productive brainstorming session. Kelly gives seven secrets to being a better brainstormer and building a brainstorming environment: sharpen your focus, playful rules, number your ideas, build and jump, the space remembers, stretch your mental muscles, and get physical. This article really stuck with me in the sense of evaluating my brainstorming efforts and finding room for improvement. For example, I typically spend a great amount of time brainstorming my projects. Sometimes, I have difficulty building a structure for these ideas and finding how to connect different ideas. Kelly helps us readers to identify ways to use the ideas to build upon a strong end product.

Xiaoting Li 20:29:42 10/2/2017

1. Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: In this paper, the authors present an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early-stage information design. By introducing a history system built as an extension of the Designers’ Outpost, the authors present three mechanisms for accessing design history, including main timeline, local timeline, and synopsis view. At the end of the paper, the authors also point out the future work direction based on the feedback given by six designers who tried to use the history system. The merit of the paper is that the authors present four scenarios to show us how history system can be helpful for web sites design. This help us to better understand how each step of web sites design can be benefited from the system. Besides providing substantial value to designers during web sites design, I can see the history system can be helpful in other ways, including promoting remote collaboration, helping designers who newly joined the team quickly grasp the idea and the history progress of the design, and so on. 2. The Perfect Brainstorm: In this chapter, the author introduces seven secrets to the success of brainstorm and six pitfalls than can ruin a brainstorm meeting. One impressive take-away message from this chapter is that people shouldn’t forbid silly ideas during a brainstorm meeting. Another impressive take-away message is that people shouldn’t start to critique or debate ideas. From what I learned in the past, brainstorm meeting should encourage the participants to think and come up with ideas without any restrictions. Even sometimes silly ideas might be brought up by some participants, other participants may be inspired by these crazy ideas and are able to find the real solutions to the problem.

MuneebAlvi 22:24:25 10/2/2017

Critique of Where do Web Sites Come From Summary: This paper describes a smart white board called Designers' Outpost. The paper also discusses the importance of storing a history of the white board that is user friendly. I agree with most of the points in this paper about the design choices of Designers' Outpost. For example, the paper mentions that the users did not like having so many thumbnails. As the users mentioned, I also believe that having a thumbnail for every action is too cluttered and does not do a good job of distilling the good segments vs the bad ones in the history. It is difficult for me to evaluate the effectiveness of the Designers' Outpost since I have never used such a system. I have only designed on plain whiteboards. Also, I have not used sticky notes for designing. Therefore, I wonder if the authors considered a white board that does not require sticky notes and could track the history of what was written. Lastly, I think a button on the whiteboard which could let the users bookmark key time stamps would be beneficial. Critique for The Perfect Brainstorm Summary: This reading shows that brainstorms can be more strategic than most people think. Also, the reading suggests brainstorms can be more successful the more often people perform them. I agree with most ideas in this reading. I work at a company where many people follow a lot of these conventions. During initial design meetings within the team, many of the team members speak up about their preferred design method or modifications to methods provided by someone else. The team is very open to listening and respecting everyone’s ideas including the ideas of engineers with less experience. Many members of the team also get up and start describing the design with drawings or sketches. However, we do not go as far as putting paper up everywhere for anyone to write on or have someone managing the meeting. Since my team works on safety software, I there is a different amount of creativity that we can have. We have to work within the strict bounds of safety. I think many other positions within the industry cannot afford to be as creative as IDEO even though it may lead to innovative solutions.

Xingtian Dong 22:35:05 10/2/2017

1. Reading critique for ‘Where do web sites come from? Capturing and interacting with design history’ To be honest I don’t quite understand the advantage of visualizations for collaborative early-phase design. But it is quite impressive that how they were trying to visualize a vague concept like time. How to visualize synopsis I think is already a widely used approach to display bookmarks and some labels. It is inspiring to see how it developed in the past. I think the most useful part for me is how the author analyzed the past works and design study to explore new ideas. 2. Reading critique for ‘The Perfect brainstorm’ The article is not related to interface, but it is really interesting and inspires me a lot. Interface design also need creative idea to attract users and create new kind of interface. The most useful part is how to improve a brainstorm and avoid killing brainstormer. It also works for small team to design something, especially for a group of computer engineers to design software or interfaces. Actually, when our team working together on homework, I think we need more focus and more playful rules. When we discuss something it is always like an argue which made us tired and unhappy. The author actually provides us a more effective way to communicate and work with each other. It is helpful for our team work.

Charles Smith 22:39:09 10/2/2017

On: brainstorming The author of this article takes from his own experiences in industry ideas that lead to good brainstorming. He also includes a list of things not to do when brainstorming. Brainstorming is an often forgotten skill that is extremely useful when trying to problem solve as a group. The author takes this point and offers many useful, and timeless, pointers from his own experience. Very often in groups, the brainstorming fails to find an adequate solution to the problem at hand, largely because the group doesn’t practice their brainstorming as the author suggests. The author of this paper was able to draw from his own experiences and create a set of rules, and ‘anti-rules’ that can be applied to any scenario. These papers based upon industry and that are timeless are great to be read, and kept around for future references. On: Where do websites come from The authors of this paper describe their design for an interactive board. This board can be used with post-it notes, and keeps a branching history of the user’s design. It seems that berkeley has since taken down the link to a video mentioned in the paper. This accompanying video can be found on youtube however. This paper show an interesting look at how people thought collaborative environments and designs would interact with computers. However, while systems like the ones described in the paper exist, their use, at least in my experience, is very limited. Users prefer whiteboards and pictures over these collaborative devices (at least in my industry experience). The removal of the video from berkeley’s site seems to agree with this idea. However, I would not say that this paper is not important. Using computers in the design process can be a very valuable tool, and most certainly can be seen as such when used. The lack of computer use in a process similar to how the authors envisioned is extremely surprising, and would be an interesting area of research as to why.

Sanchayan Sarkar 23:57:31 10/2/2017

CRITIQUE 1 (Where do Websites come from? Capturing and Interacting with Design History) In this paper, the author devises a framework for creating a history system which is an interface that allows designers not only to capture history but also retrieve it during the design process. Such a system is highly beneficial for the design of a collaborative website design or for that matter any design project. One of the merits of the paper is that it mentions four likely scenarios where the capturing of history of design process would be necessary for the progress of the project. They are: Reaching a Dead End; Writing a summary of the finished session; finding a rationale or an explanation behind apparent decisions and following up on a previously finished session. The paper illustrates these four scenarios with examples to demonstrate the motivation of the design history system. I, myself found relevance while designing my undergraduate project on an online voting system which required a detailed capture of the history of design process for 6 months. However, here, the author presents designing direct manipulation interfaces as a tool for capturing and retrieve the design history process. The author also summarizes three aspects of capturing history: Timeline Visualization, local timeline visualization and Synopsis visualization. Along with these self-explanatory categorization, the author also mentions several user study’s done to find out which aspects of these visualization phases they disliked or liked. It was interesting to note that although thumbnails are preferred, too many of them provides a distraction. Also, bookmarks and stub branches of history are also appreciable features. Overall, this paper is a good read for understanding the importance, aspects and motivations of designing a history system that captures and retrieves phases of the design process. ******************************************************************************************************************************************************************** CRITIQUE 2 (The Perfect Brainstorm) In this article, the author examines the factors that lead to good brainstorming and warns against those that hinders a good brainstorm. Brainstorming is a wonderful thing, which people often ignore. The author focuses on spontaneity and the effectiveness of brainstorming. The author says that defining the problem statement is a good way to start a focused brainstorming. But it mustn’t be too narrow. Also factors like flexible rules, numbering of ideas, maintaining momentum and capturing ideas quickly using materials available are hand are effective ways to brainstorm. An interesting factor is the study done to observe the effect of warmups on a brainstorm. It was interesting to find that the group, that went to view the actual place about which the content of the topic discusses, was more successful in brainstorming than the group that listened to an expert lecture. The paper crisply mentions the pitfalls for destroying a brainstorm like bringing only experts, or talking in turns or talking in a completely off site. Also, quite contrary to common thinking, even writing is a bad idea for brainstorming as it shifts the focus off the person. This paper does a fairly good job of succinctly explaining the good paths and the bath paths to a perfect brainstorm. It also reasserts why brainstorming is a critical skill in today’s world as it is a rapid session of fresh ideas that might provide strong leads to new innovation.

Yuhuan Jiang 2:35:21 10/3/2017

Paper Critiques for 10/03/2017 == Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History == This paper presents a system to history capture and retrieval for team collaboration. The system is designed with a goal in mind: the support for multiple designers collaborating at the same time. The system’s interface consists of three facilities: the main timeline, the local timeline, and the synopsis view. For timeline visualization, the system uses a thumbnail to represent a snapshot of the contents of the board at a given time. The paper introduces activity filters and inferred filters that can be used by the designer to selectively view thumbnails. The timeline can be navigated on the board in a branching fashion (compared to today’s Git version control). For synopsis generation, the paper introduced an on-screen synopsis and a printed synopsis. A synopsis is constructed either by explicit user bookmarks, or from a filtered history view. The history system presented in this paper is an implementation of collaborative design systems. This paves the way for better collaborative design system. == The Best Way to Get A Good Idea Is To Get A Lot of Ideas == This paper is about what makes good and bad brainstormings. The author provided 7 suggestions that can help with brainstorming. The problem statement should be clear, and not fuzzy. Participants of a brainstorming session will need to stick to rules. The ideas should be numbered to motivate the participants. The facilitator of a brainstorming session should be able to nurture an emerging conversation with a light touch in the slow phase, and then know how to let the discussion reach “the plateau”. The spatial memory should be utilized as a visual medium for the whole group (such as post-its, or some electronic alternative). Warm-up practices are oftentimes useful to train stretch the participants’ mental muscles, before diving into highly intensive discussions. Physical movements are also encouraged. The author also provided 6 ways that negatively impact brainstormings. The boss speaks first will give other participants the impression that their contribution must be substantial and practical, which limits the extent of the discussion. Going clockwise/counterclockwise and asking everyone to speak is also harmful. But the other extreme, only experts getting the chance to speak, is also harmful. Off-site brainstorming is bad because it tends to make the participants associate creativity with the offsite environment, yet creativity is needed in the office. Not allowing silly stuff is also discouraged. And lastly, writing down everything can also negatively impact the quality of brainstorming because taking notes shifts the focus of everyone to the wrong side of their brains.

Ronian Zhang 3:25:14 10/3/2017

Where do websites come from: capturing and interaction with design history: In this paper, the author looked into the history methods of capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborate early-stage design. Then he designed his own system which includes 3 methods of accessing history: main timeline, local time line and synopsis view. By iteratively interaction with users, the author refined the system several times and made the system highly usable which could help the users solve real time problems (collaborative design). (I believe the the tree structure of branched history is easier to use.) Using visualize method (The nature of the design of information architectures enable the way to show changes by using collapsed stubs), the history review becomes very easy to understand. The support of different filter method helps user to locate what they want quickly. The paper uses direct manipulation interface for timeline navigation, it makes the scrolling more fluid.————————————————————————————— The perfect brain storm: the article tells about brainstorms. The author shows the importance of brainstorm, gives 7 ways to make better brainstorm (sharpen the focus, make rules, number ideas, make jumps, use spiral memory, make the topic things available, get physical), also he tells some taboo of brainstorm. I do brainstorms sometime, especially when my friends and I begin to working on something, it maybe about scalpers or maybe about starting doing projects. I always find it beneficial and also totally agree the idea of having focus (sometimes, the topic is too wide and go so far away), make jumps (this allow fresh idea, if there are too much limitation, we might miss a lot of possible ways to solve or improve some issues. The whole idea of brainstorm is seeing the problem from different perspective), also the brainstorm really needs a discussion-friendly environment (some time we do it in bar and forget everything after drunk.).

Mehrnoosh Raoufi 3:37:12 10/3/2017

Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History: The paper mainly is about the capturing and interacting with design history. The author introduces a history system that enables users to add their notes and change them later. Three mechanisms are introduced in this paper; stub branching main timeline, local timeline, and annotated synopsis view. In the first method, the history design is shown by thumbnails. The second one enables the user to choose according to note or authors or the time.This is a sort of filter. It is useful because makes it possible for users to review whatever they want in the timeline.The third method is again filtering but on the basis of bookmarks that user has made explicitly. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Perfect Brainstorm: This paper talks about brainstorming and whether it is a skill to be learned or an art to possess. It argues that the best idea could only be found in a huge number of ideas. Moreover, the author illustrates the importance of brainstorming and give some details on how to organize it. Then, the author proceeds on seven secrets that make the best for successful brainstormers.First, the problem needs to be expressed in a well-articulated way. Ideas should not be debated that much, and ideas should be numbered and written down, wild ideas should be supported to encourage people making them, and etc. He argues that most of the people do not know how to correctly brainstorm. They either do it in wrong way or do not perform it sufficiently.The author believes that if the brainstorming does not take place in the right way, it may lead to a negative impact.On the other hand, if it is performed correctly, the author believes that it can rise innovations.

Ruochen Liu 8:41:53 10/3/2017

1. Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History:In order to help researchers and designers search and engage history, this paper presents a history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative and early-stage information design. Three novel history visualizations for collaborative early-phase design: a stub-branching main timeline, an in situ object timeline and an annotated synopsis view are also presented in the paper. About this paper, what interests me the most is the effort that the author takes to break the barrier between different designers and design the history system to make collaborative design possible. Also, there are many features or new ideas that inspire me a lot, such as the branched time visualization design. In Microsoft Office, the multi-level undo and redo is a simple example of branched time visualization design. In the history system that mentioned in the paper, to preserve the entire history with all constituent action strands, and without introducing unwieldy complexity, the concept of a branched action history with the linearity of a single stranth ded history is used. In presenting the history as a linear list of actions, multiple branches are represented by a collapsed stub. They can be shown inside each other by nesting the stub parenthesis markers. And the users are able to open or collapse any branch and choose the presentation of the relevant timeline. The whole design is very neat and easy to use. 2. The Perfect Brainstorm: Begin with the saying: “The best way to get a good ides is to get a lot of them”, this paper simply introduce the several basics rules of brainstorm. First, the paper present seven secrets to make a better brainstorm: sharpening the focus, making playful rules, numbering the ideas, building and jumping, the space remembers, stretching mental muscles and getting physical. Second, the brainstormer effect is mentioned. I can learn from it that a team can benefit a lot from a good brainstorm. It is a chance for everyone to donate his or her brilliance to the team project. It is also common that hundreds of ideas are put out but only few of them can be achieved. But whether succeed or not, the ideas and prototypes can inspire teammates to make maybe better ideas. Last, six bad ways to make a brainstorm are mentioned. They are the boss gets to speak first, everybody gets a turn, experts only please, do it off-site, no silly stuff and write down everything.

Akhil Yendluri 8:44:25 10/3/2017

Where do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History
This paper talks about the creation of a history system, an informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early stage information design. The authors present three mechanism to display data in an ordered fashion, Main Timeline, Local Timeline and a Synopsis View. The main idea is how to track the entire design changes with information like notes, time and reason for the change to be represented in an orderly manner for everyone to understand. The authors take inspiration from other works like Design Rationale and History through Capture and Access(CORAL, Audiobook, WeMet). The aim of the system is to capture information from the user in natural ways and attempt to structure it in useful order for later retrieval. The system provides multiple filters by which the user can arrange information. For example Activity filters like by Actions, by Bookmarks, by Meeting and Inferred filters like by Time, by Note and by Author. The system uses thumbnails to display information and also highlights them to display the changes made in those thumbnails between different versions. The system also gives the option of going back to previous revision using the undo/redo options. The systems captures the history tree of changes using which the user can navigate back and forward. The authors have done extensive study on the usage of this system and have come up with various scenarios where this could be helpful. They also have on the experimented the system with professional designers and took inputs from them in order to further improve the system.
The Perfect Brainstorm
This chapter about brainstorming helps us understand the effects of proper brainstorming. The author explains how brainstorming is a skill like playing a piano rather than tying your shoes. It can be consistently improved by practice. The author gives seven techniques for improving our brainstorming sessions. We can infer that brainstorming will be better and more effective when the question is clearly stated and provides room for innovation, avoid debates, list all ideas, make it visual, do some homework before to make get better ideas. A good brainstormer can generate a hundred ideas in an hour! The author proves his claims by stating his experience with Dynabook. Brainstorming also helps build reputation for people who perform well. The author also mentions what-not-to-do in a brainstorming session. Strict rules like the boss speaks first, everyone speaks in turns, limiting the meeting to experts only, conducting it off-site, talking on silly stuff and writing everything thing down without participation can drastically affect the brainstorming session. We can now understand how to be better productive when brainstorming and use these techniques to improve our own performance.