Mobile Interfaces - 2

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Readings

Reading Critiques

Jonathan Albert 12:36:43 10/10/2017

Wedge: This paper details a method for representing off-screen objects of interest given a small screen. It compares its wedge method with an arc- or halo-based method, discussing the tests and results used for comparison. On some of the example images, I noticed certain wedges' aperture sizes were quite small. I recognize their tests were performed with a traditional mouse, interacting with an emulated display. While such an aperture may have been clickable with a mouse pointer, I wonder how a human finger would manage it. I think this was an oversight that should have been factored into their algorithms. Further, when the authors mentioned the intuitive measure of closeness afforded by Halos, I wonder why they did not consider adding arcs at the end of their wedge instead of flat lines. If the wedge's adaptability is so beneficial except in the one case where Halos outperforms it, the wedge system could have improved by incorporating its competitor's strength. With these considerations, the wedge system could possibly have performed well in all tests. ---- Glanceable Display: This paper describes the use of a glanceable display to motivate personal fitness. It goes into detail about the tests undertaken and users' reaction to the system. The authors' consideration of multiple display metaphors (e.g., fish tanks or gardens) to reduce user boredom raised an interesting issue. If the system relies on constant visual updates in order to keep its user base, it will be subject to the law of diminishing returns. If the interface did not change often, users could become accustomed to and ignore an interface which is always present, like the electronic fish tank in the office. This also fails to cater to data-driven users who prefer direct information, even if nothing obscures their personal data. Nevertheless, the idea of glanceability itself is an interesting tool to motivate interaction with with obligation-related information. By confronting a user with information in such a way, it appears to successfully motivate them, at least for a season. However, is this data then limited to one specific area of import? The screen is a singleton; cluttering it with multiple glanceable displays--or slotting them to a corner or notification bar--could allow the user to ignore them entirely.

MuneebAlvi 22:56:19 10/15/2017

Critique of Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations Summary: This reading argues that Wedge should be used instead of Halos to display the location of objects off-screen. While the findings of the article seem promising, I am surprised that I cannot remember using a wedge to navigate in any interface that I have used. I have played many video games and used many other interfaces and most of them use a Halos style approach with the occasional use of arrows if the user navigates too far from the point of interest. I also tested this on google maps and I could not see either a halos approach nor a wedge approach. Google maps simply zooms out to show all points of interest and if the user is looking at the start and end of a route, the route itself is a natural pointer for where the start or end are located. However, in many video games I have played, the games will employ large arrows on the maps that always originate from locations of interest no matter where the player moves the map. These arrows look like modified wedges. They are modified in shape to fit the look and feel of the game but they are also filled in with a certain color to stand out from the rest of the map which can sometimes get cluttered. Critique of Flowers or a Robot Army Summary: This reading tries to justify using mobile devices to regularly remind users of making healthy choices by exercising. The paper uses a 3 month test where participants are given a test phone and small device (mobile sensing platform). All the papers in this class have shown that popular technologies have roots from years ago. This reading is also like those papers. The reading discusses glancing at your phone to remind you to exercise. The paper also mentions an accompanying device to track fitness. This is directly comparable to the smart watches of today. Smart watches today still use the term glance to describe the user quickly checking the status of something whether its the weather, a text message reply, or fitness status. The smart watches completely replace the bulky Mobile Sensing Platform that the users of this study had to wear. A watch is also more convenient and portable. Most smartwatches today have a fitness app which allows users to glance at their watch to see their fitness progress. For example, Apple Watch uses rings to measure a users goals. When all three rings are completed, the user has met their goals. I am not sure if there are other interfaces which can be used as the paper mentioned but after giving an Apple Watch to a relative and seeing them motivated to complete the rings, I think the rings system is somewhat effective.

Xiaoting Li 23:12:31 10/15/2017

1. Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: In this paper, the authors introduce a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance without overlap and clutter. And the technique is called Wedge. In the paper, the authors carry out evaluation to compare Wedge with an existing technique called Halo in three tasks. And the authors found that Wedge has better overall performance than Halo except Halo did a better job in Closest task. The authors give us good example of how to carry out experimental evaluation in a research study. The authors divided the study into three main experimental tasks and then select related variables properly. And finally they used statistic analysis to get the result. 2. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: In this paper, the authors introduce UbiFit System which is a system with stylized representation of behavior to encourage individuals to participant physical activities. The authors carried out an experiment on 28 participants and found that stylized representations do help to raise effectiveness and encourage people to participant more physical activities. After reading this paper, I have a question about the number of participants in an experiment. How many people should we invite in an experiment to get convincing results and whether 28 participants can give us a promising result? And how do we decide the number of participants in a specific experiment?

Krithika Ganesh 11:24:33 10/16/2017

Wedge: Clutter-free visualization of off screen locations – This paper focuses on Wedge, a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance, yet avoids overlap and clutter This technique is based on amodal perception which suggests that human visual system will complete parts of an object even when it is only partially visible. Each wedge consists of two legs of equal length and one terminating line called the base and offers 3 degrees of freedoms – rotation, aperture and intrusion of wedge. The goals for spending degrees of freedom are: to avoid overlap, to maximize the location accuracy and to serve as an additional cue. According to the wedge layout algorithm, the intrusion depth was manipulated by using longer legs for shorter targets and shorter legs for longer targets and rotates wedges until there is no overlap. When the user study was conducted, Wedge outperformed Halo in locating the offscreen location and avoid task, however Halo was preferred in finding the closest place task. The following recommendations were proposed to designers that one can use use wedge, reduce overlap, corners need to be given special attention and one needs to strike a balance while selecting parameters for off screen visualization. What is surprising is that wedge visualization technique is not used in the current navigation technologies! -----------------END OF FIRST CRITIQUE------------------------------------------------ Flowers or a robot army? Encouraging awareness and activity with personal, mobile displays: This paper focuses on UbiFit which uses stylized, abstract representation of physical activity behavior which encourages individuals to self-monitor their physical activity. It consists of three components: a glanceable display, an interactive application and a fitness device. The glanceable display uses aesthetic representation of physical activities which resides in the background screen of the user motivating the user to commit to fitness. The interactive application includes detailed information of the physical activities. Then the fitness device, worn around the waist tracks all types of activities, like walking, running, cycling etc to the glanceable display and interactive application. While choosing the participants the author mentions that they were regular mobile phone users who wanted to increase their physical activity, but there is no proof that the participants indeed genuinely wanted to be fit as they may have joined the study just to earn money. Also, instead of just performing the experiment in the holiday time where no one is motivated to exercise, they could have also performed the same experiment during the summer time, when people are motivated to exercise and how UbiFit helped them to increase their commitment to fitness. UbiFit is very much like today’s fitness devices, in fact what is interesting is their innovative background display that changes according to the activities performed which can be used in today’s devices. The only problem is that what if one forgets to carry the fitness device, their physical activities during that time will not be tracked. Hence the device should be something closer to the real world which people wear everyday like a watch. Past few years we have seen smart watches which include this feature.

Tahereh Arabghalizi 15:13:13 10/16/2017

 Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: The authors of this paper introduced techniques related to objects located off-screen in order to overcome display limitations of small screen devices. This paper presented Wedge that is a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance but avoids clutter and overlap. Wedge represents each off-screen location using an acute isosceles triangle. Each wedge offers three degrees of freedom, to avoid overlap, maximize the location accuracy and to serve as an additional cue. The authors introduced several wedge layout algorithms namely intrusion which has three aspects: constant intrusion, shorter intrusion for longer distances and longer intrusion for longer distances. The other algorithm is aperture which is the angle separating the legs. Another wedge algorithm is rotation which is the primary means of avoiding wedge overlap. This paper also states the experiment conditions from three aspects namely visualization, density and position. It also set up several tasks including locating off-screen location, avoiding the traffic jam and finding the closest restaurant. The Off-Screen technology, has already been used in many applications like games and 3D visualizations. I think the off-screen technology could be very useful because the limited screen size of mobile devices cannot cover all the needs of users such as getting enough information about traffic on the map. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays:   In this paper, the authors described a system called UbiFit, which uses a stylized, abstract representation of physical activity behaviour and goal attainment on a personal, mobile display to encourage individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and incorporate regular and varied activity into everyday life. They reported results of a field experiment using UbiFit. This paper presented outcomes that showed that participants of the experiments who used this system were successfully able to maintain their physical activity level over time and on holiday weeks.  I found this paper very interesting and novel as it examined the use of a stylized representation of behavior on a mobile display with the aim of encouraging self-monitoring and behavior change. In my idea, the introduced glanceable display or live wallpaper that changes in response to the external events seems very interesting.  

Spencer Gray 17:33:16 10/16/2017

In the first paper, Wedge, the authors created a new visual cue to overcome the limitations of small-screen devices. The authors begin by describing the previous methods of solving their problem. After that, they conducted a study to compare their system to Halo, which was considered to be the system that utilizes amodal completion. What I found most interesting in this paper was how the authors compared their system to Halo. By administering both systems to test subjects who had never used Halo, they showed how their system out performs Halo, especially in the corner cases. This is an interesting approach to creating a new system. To show that your new system is as good as or better than the current best system, you are making a strong argument to why your new system is a significant contribution. If I were to remake this study today, I would not only compare Wedge with Halo, but also with the other systems they mentioned in their related work such as City Lights or EdgeRadar. By comparing it against all of these systems, the researhers could have further proved the importance of their work. In the second paper, Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays, the authors created a mobile phone lock-screen to motivate users to exercise. Their full system included the display that grows as the user exercises more, an interactive system to self report and fix mistakes, and a device to infer and transmit the user's physical activity. To me, the most significant part of the study was the goal to protect the user's privacy. The display can be disguised as a typical background image. Other people looking at the phone would have not know the the user is engaging in the UbiFit system (unless they were also engaging in the system and recognized the image). This was insightful into people's potential shame in needing to use a device to motivate them to exercise. Furthermore, I also found the decision to do a long term study to be very insightful. It is easy to stay motivated for a few weeks to exercise, however it is much more difficult over a long period of time. By using a 3 month study, the researchers showed that their system itself encouraged people to exercise, not just the novelty.

Mingzhi Yu 22:19:46 10/16/2017

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: This paper introduced a new off-screen visualization technique Wedge. And by comparing the Wedge with another existing technique, Halo, the author claimed that their algorithm is more effective than the Halo. The author shows significant improvement of the accuracy and reduced clutter. This work is aiming at coming up with an approach that will overcome the displaying limitation of small-screen devices. Before getting in their work, the authors kinda investigating many previous works and came up with the idea of using triangles overlaid onto the display areas. The key technique of Wedges is combing the overview with detail views shown in miniature as well as combing focus with context techniques in fisheye views. This paper mostly introduced the technical aspect of this Wedge application. For the technical part, I don't have much comment on it. But for the design idea, I appreciate how neat their innovation is. And how they dive deep into the problem and came up with the design ideas that rely on the human behavior. By modifying the angle of shape, angle, and rotation, they develop an intelligent algorithm. I think the design sounds. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: The is a paper the introduced a new system that motivated the human being to cooperate the physical exercise into daily life. The authors cited many previous works, too. And with a series of a good user study, this system is proved to overperform another system. Their glance display seems the significant feature of their system and is also proved to be effective. One thing I appreciate about his work is how they design a sound user study that considered situation and time(Holiday weeks). This is an interesting independent variable. In general, this their system seems effective. However, there is only one thing that I want to mention: the interface they have, I mean the green garden, sounds like a childish game to me. If I am the user, I won't bother to take care of my garden. And lack of the feedback and reward from the reality, human being are very lazy to take any action for any purpose. The motivation of the task sounds not attractive to me. Maybe they should analyze the impact of their interface design to their system in the experiment, too.

Xingtian Dong 22:54:37 10/16/2017

1. Reading critique for ‘Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations’ I think this paper is helpful with how to address a problem and set a comparison group and design an experiment. The author introduces a series of previous approaches to solve the problem of map on small screen. He introduces an approach called Halo and how it works, what’s its’ advantages and drawbacks. And based on this, the author come up with a visualization technique to convey direction and distance and avoids overlap and clutter which is called ‘Wedges’. The author has a clear description about how he bring up this idea which useful for us to learn how come up an idea based on related work. Another important thing is that the experiment is very clear. The author use Halo as comparison group and success control the independent variables. Although the study found out that users preferred Halo. The author gave an impressive analysis and is worthy for us to learn how to analysis a failed result and learn from it. 2. Reading critique for ‘Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays’ After reading this paper, I think the most inspiring part is the author convert the original interface which display mathematical data to an interface which can display the data as flowers and butterflies. It makes achieving fitness like maintaining a garden. I think it much more interesting than just display how many days the user has keep up and highlight the goals which the user achieves. Same idea can also be introduced to other fields, like learning. Learning something might be a boring thing, but if we use an interesting interface for the learning software. It might improve the efficiency of learning. Another point is also about experiment design. The author design a long term experiment. Thus, after the experiment there are a lot of data to analysis. The author classify the data as many dependent variables and analysis them in many aspects. This made the experiment very impressive.

Charles Smith 23:09:01 10/16/2017

On: Flowers or Robot army The authors of this paper design a ‘glanceable display’ that show the users, in a graphical way, their weekly physical activity. The is done in the experiment by using a garden as the background on the phone. Workout tracking devices are very common today, and the specific hardware tracking devices used in the experiment can even be simulated by the smartphones themselves. Using a display to make user continuously aware of their current activity vs. their goals seems like a great use of the technology that exists today. This is also the first paper that we read that weighs the users opinions highly in determining the success of the project. It even goes to include quotes from the participants, including ones that do not portray it in a good light. I believe this is one of the most important factors in a good interface. On: Wedge In this paper, the authors created and tested a new way to show users where off-screen items can be found. They do this through the drawing of partial triangles on the screen. The authors found an issue with a different idea to solve the same issue. Halos got confusing after adding only a few more objects than what were tested in the original paper. This demonstrates that not every paper that seems to show a new idea, and backs up the success of that idea with data, is showing the full truth. Research studies can be easily manipulated to show results favorable to the researchers. While this paper shows how other can have limitations, it also has some itself. The research participant group was not chosen randomly; it pulls only from a computer science undergrad program. The means that the statistics from the study may not be representative of the population as a whole.

Akhil Yendluri 23:44:10 10/16/2017

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations
This paper presents a visualization technique to convey distance and direction using triangles on a map. The authors claim that this method is much better than Halo which uses Circles to convey the same message. The main focus of the paper is that by using triangles, they are able to rotate and orient them in a way that each triangle does not overlap each other. This avoids clutter and improves readability. It also increases the sense of direction and distance which was very vaguely conveyed in Halo. The researchers have laid out the algorithm which clearly explains the above functionality. They have carefully selected the dependent and independent variables and have made other factors like software, mobile device constant. This improved the qualitative analysis of the paper. The authors designed effective the test cases to capture the performance of Wedge and the results clearly indicated the performance edge that Wedge had over Halo even though it was almost similar in some test cases.
Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays
This paper is about UbiFit, a system developed by the author to monitor the physical activity of the user. The author developed the system so that the user can self-monitor their overall activity in a stylized display. The use of the glanceable display helped in sending useful information to the user and made them aware of their physical activity. To improve the accuracy, the author had 28 participants who used the application for over 3 months over the holiday period. This paper make me realize that the mobile is still undergoing a constant change and a device as ubiquitous as a mobile display screen still can do a lot to help us.

Kadie Clancy 0:52:03 10/17/2017

Wedge: Clutter-free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: This article presents Wedge, which is an off-screen visualization technique that conveys direction and distance while avoiding overlap and clutter. Wedge uses an acute isosceles triangle conveying location with the two legs pointing towards the offscreen location. The paper presents an overview of the design space of showing off-screen content by presenting an overview of previous techniques. Wedge offers three degrees of freedom while still pointing to the same location, unlike its predecessors: rotation, aperture, and intrusion of a wedge. The Wedge layout algorithm determines an acceptable layout of wedges by manipulating these three degrees, so that wedges effectively repel each other. Finally, the authors present a user study to compare the effectiveness of Wedge with Halo, a technique that surrounds relevant locations with rings just large enough to intrude on the screen. The results of the study largely favored Wedge over Halo in terms of both user preference and error rate and completion time. An important component of this paper is the fact that the authors considered various implementations of wedge shape based on perceptual theories like amodal perception based on local models in order to approve upon the Halo technique. The authors also demonstrated possible applications of Wedge through the design of the user study, and gathered recommendations based on results of their study which can guide designers of future off-screen visualization. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: This article presents results from a field experiment that investigated the effectiveness of mobile phone displays as a means for improving awareness of daily life. UbiFit is a mobile technology that consists of a glanceable display, an interactive application, and a fitness device. The glanceable display uses a garden representation as the phone wallpaper which presents key information about physical activity. A healthy garden represents a healthy week, but the display only uses positive reinforcement. The interactive application allows users to complete tasks such as view a daily list of performed activities, view weekly goal progress and add activities for the day. The experiment was three-months long and consisted of 28 participants over the holiday season, a time that is notorious for decreased activity levels. The glanceable display was well received by study participants and results showed that users who had the glanceable display were able to maintain physical activity levels over the holidays. I think an important concept in this paper is the fact that the study did not use participants who were recruited from within the research team or company. I think this is very important to eliminate bias and is necessary when conducting a full-scale study to be totally objective, but seems often ignored.

Ronian Zhang 0:54:47 10/17/2017

Wedge: Clutter-free visualization of off-screen location: In this paper, the author proposed a method that point users to objects located off-screen. The current common method which called Halo allows user to infer the exact location of off-screen target, the method arises problems when large number of targets are locations in the same direction: it will overlap and makes user hard to locate the target. The author proposed wedge conveys location awareness through 2 legs pointing towards target, and by using isosceles triangle instead of circle, the method successfully avoid the overlap and clutter problem. The basic theory is that human visual system will compete parts of an object even when it’s only partially visible. The whole idea is that this method provides 3 degrees of freedom (rotation, aperture and intrusion) instead of 1. The author also conducted experiment on monitor (I wonder why don’t the they use real PDA) to compare the method with Halo on missions of locating, avoid and closest (to test visualization type, density and position). And it turned out to be that locate and avoid is better, but since Halo has more direct way of conveying distance info, it is better in closet task. It’s common situation that each method has its own preferred application scenario and there is simply no perfect solution. (However, in this paper, I believe the advantages is much more than disadvantages.)————————————————————————————— Flowers or a robot army? Encouraging awareness & activity with personal, mobile displays: In this paper, author proposed a more acceptable software called UbiFit for improving the awareness of daily life (self-monitoring of physical activity). It’s an interesting paper: even though the mobile phone today shows so much info, it stills have the opportunity to provide even more. By studying the former related work, we know that a software as such shouldn’t be annoying and the punishment of not insisting exercise should be avoided, all the activity should be taken into consideration and the software better integrated with everyday life. The paper was written in 2008, even now, we still try to let the mobile phone take over most part of our lives. By directly let the background reflect the exercise level, the system remind the user about exercise in a much more gentle way. There are so many health care (exercise-oriented) software today, but most of them try to encourage the user by let them compete with there friends. Ironically, the software itself loses its original purpose, and most of the top ranking user cheated on the result. I believe the software is still a good way to promote and encourage the user to do more exercise. It would be great to build more colorful background paper by doing more exercise.

Mehrnoosh Raoufi 1:12:26 10/17/2017

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: This paper represents a technique called wedge that is aimed to overcome the limitation of small-screen devices. It is a method for visualization and tries to avoid clutter and overlap. It is to address off-screen objects like while you are using maps your wanted location is off-screen. The author explains the related works of some general technique for showing off-screen objects. They introduce the Halo which is a popular tool for conveying location but it does not contribute to distance and direction. They show Halo's defects in accuracy and where clutter occurs. Then they proceed on the details of their design and the main goals they pursue. To evaluate their design they perform a user study to compare the accuracy of their technique with the commonly used one that was Halo. They conduct the experiment under the PDA platform and considers thee aspects; visualization, density, and position: corners vs. sides of the display. The results point out a significant accuracy advantage of Wedge over Halo. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays: In this paper, they introduce the system they build called UbiFit. It is used to display physical activities on a personal mobile device. Their motivation is to encourage people to self-monitor their physical activity and keep up with it in their daily life. They polish their design display in order to be more user-friendly and thus more effective. For instance, they add screensavers with moving objects and beautiful appearance. In this way, they make it more attractive for users. In addition, UbiFit is designed to be interactive. It notifies the user if the fitness criteria start to decline. It also enjoys a glanceable display. They perform a user study to evaluate their design. In their experiments, they observed 28 participants for three months. The results show that their UniFit help people to maintain their activity even during holidays when people tend to gain weights. They conclude that glanceable device is the most effective factor to this success.

Yuhuan Jiang 1:42:35 10/17/2017

Paper Critiques for 10/17/2017 == Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations == This paper discusses an effective method, called Wedge, for visualizing off-screen locations for maps on mobile devices with small screens. The wedge has three degrees of freedom: rotation, aperture and intrusion. Since the wedges can still overlap with one another if laid out arbitrarily, the authors presented an algorithm that lays out the wedges neatly. The algorithm determines the layout by manipulating intrusion depth, wedge aperture, and rotation. A user study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of Wedge with the (at the time) commonly used Halo representation. The users participated in three tasks: (1) locate the off-screen location, (2) avoid the traffic jam, and (3) find the closest restaurant. The Wedge representation of off-screen locations is significantly more accurate than Halo. Wedge and Halo provide equally good cues to distance information. == Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays == This paper introduces a system named UniFit which has an interface to indicate progress of fitness goals. It utilized a stylized, abstract representation of fitness activities to provide a personal indicator of progress. Their goal is to blend such progress reports seamlessly into the everyday lives of the users. A field experiment with 28 participants was conducted. The experiment lasted three months in the winter holiday season. It shows that UbiFit was well-received, and participants who had the glanceable display were able to maintain their physical activity level even during holiday weeks. This contrasts vastly with those users who do not have the glanceable display. This was a novel attempt at the time (before wearable devices such as Apple Watch becomes widely used by consumers). It pioneered the exploration of the possibility to utilize idle screens of personal devices to blend crucial information seamlessly into people’s everyday lives.

Amanda Crawford 2:19:53 10/17/2017

Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations, Gustafson, S., Baudisch, P., Gutwin, C, and Irani, P., In Proc of CHI 2008 Wedge is a technique that allows the user to visualize off-screen targets. Although this paper was published in 2008, location and position aware cameras has recently gained notoriety in the past 2 years. Wedge out beat it's sister technique Halo by allowing additional degrees of freedom in identifying targets. We now have technology that allows user to create 360 degree videos and locate off screen targets through movement may have some connection. Flowers or a robot army?: encouraging awareness & activity with personal, mobile displays, Sunny Consolvo, Predrag Klasnja, David W. McDonald et al, In Proc of Ubicomp 2008 This paper explores UbiFit and how to display visually abstract content representations on mobile devices in a form that motivates user. It takes a new spin on building context aware devices in a sense the device now informs the user of it's own physical and mental state. This is a step in further forging more intimate synergies with devices and their users. Taking into account that information can easily overload users, UbiFit explores the use of the screensaver as a passive and informative method of communication. This paper was written in 2008, before Apple released it ability to display notifications on the screen saver. Now, most apps push notifications use this space as an advertisement panel.

Sanchayan Sarkar 7:59:05 10/17/2017

CRITIQUE1 (Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations) In this paper, the authors present a novel visualization technique called “Wedge” which projects both distance and accurate direction for displaying content that does not fit on the screens of the phones. For example, a destination in the map cannot be shown on screen due to the limitations of the dimensions of the screen. However, because of Wedge, it can convey enough information that allows the user to accurately get the off-camera visualization of that destination. One of the interesting features of the paper is the underlying cognitive understanding of the human perception: a modal completion. This gives a method a solid foundation of user understanding and why projecting off screen locations are effective to the user. Also a merit of the method is that it uses three degrees of freedom: rotation, aperture and intrusion. This equips the method to tackle overlaps and greatly increase the accuracy. It also gives it an advantage over other methods like Halo. Another interesting aspect of the paper is the user study conducted. In my opinion, it tries to tackle many of the borderline conditions as well which makes the paper more insightful in designing future experiments. Also, the paper gives an exhaustive categorization of methods tackling the off-screen visualization problem like overviews, focus contexts, etc. The only negative of this paper was that it still did not tackle scenarios with denser overlaps. It would be interesting to notice how the algorithm plays out in such a situation. Despite that, it is a novel method in a promising direction with utmost relevance in today’s world.******************************************************************* CRITIQUE2 (Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays) In this paper, the authors present a novel system of showing physical activity in a stylized and abstract way on a personalized device, to encourage awareness about personal physical activity. The authors show that the effect indeed happens. One of the merits of the paper is the constant focus on self-monitoring and giving the users continuous feedback. Also, it provides positive reinforcement in terms of small rewards to keep the users interested in performing activity. This is much better as opposed to systems with hard arduous tasks. The system that was developed that three main components: A glanceable display which represented activities in a stylized way, an interactive application and a fitness device which is multi-sensor placed to infer the physical activity at real time. Another interesting feature of this paper is the evaluation scenarios developed to study the experiment. What was really interesting was that the glanceable display had a much better favorability measure amongst users than the fitness device. It was observed that people with glanceable device were far better in maintaining their physical activity than people without it. One of the demerits of the paper would be the duration of the experiment. Even though the experiment was conducted over a three month period, it is too short of a time to understand the borderline scenarios. A bigger timespan would have helped in the better understanding of the underlying reasons of the results obtained. Never the less, this work is an insightful one in the area of ubiquitous computing and will be helpful for developing future scenarios to detect and analyze on human behavior for effective interaction with the users.

Ruochen Liu 8:58:40 10/17/2017

1. Wedge: Clutter-Free Visualization of Off-Screen Locations: This paper begins with some introductions about several arrow-based techniques. They all have their own disadvantages like the City Lights only convey direction and although halo conveys direction and distance at the same time, it is susceptible to clutter resulting from overlapping halos. So Wedge is presented to change the situation. It is a visualization technique that conveys direction and distance and avoids overlap or clutter at the same time. The way for Wedge to represent the off-screen location is unique: it is an acute isosceles triangle, which means the tip coincides with the off-screen locations and the two corners are located on-screen. In this way, the Wedge can programmatically avoid overlap by repelling each other. Also, a user study comparing Wedge and Halo for off-screen tasks is done. The results show that the participants were more accurate when using Wedge than when using Halo. So, a conclusion can be made that wedges can fill the gap to be applied to numbers and configurations of the targets that would lead to clutter if using Halo. 2. Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal, Mobile Displays: This paper mentions that almost all the personal mobile displays are ubiquitous but unfortunately underutilized. In order to improve the situation, a new system named UbiFit is presented in this paper. This system is designed to use personal displays to improve awareness of everyday life. More specifically, it use stylized representation of activity behavior and goal attainment on the personal screens to encourage users to change their activities. A field experiment with 28 users is done and the result is good. Using this system, the users are able to maintain their activity level. This technology has a promising future and it is a small step towards ubiquitous computer.