Tangible Interfaces

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mini seminar - abstract


Reading Critiques

Mingzhi Yu 17:32:16 11/1/2017

Getting in touch: First of all, this is a long chapter the mainly describe an ideal world that is full of computation and touchable computational devices. It discussed the past of tangible computational devices in computer history and brought out some perspective vision of the future tangible devices. It explained and criticized part of the ubiquitous computing idea of Mark Weiser. According to the author, the concept of ubiquitous computing is paradoxical itself. It argued that even though the computer may disappear and hide in the daily life in a way that we can not see, the computation is everywhere. I agree with his argument but do not think Mark Weiser's ubiquitous computing has any concept that conflict with that. In the second part of the chapter, the author spends some time to discuss the VR/AR. Even though I did not understand the authors' attitude towards this technology, but with the words he used, I think the author does not support this idea because he believes this will change the fundamental way of the interaction and the relationship between the computer and human beings. However, this technology is becoming gradually today. Human being immerses in the computer-generated world. Tangible Bits: This paper has over 4000 citations in google scholar. It came up with three prototype models in degisn space of Tangible User Interface namely the metaDesk, transBOARD, and ambientROOM. I think this paper has a more considering and specialized vision than the last chapter we read. It tries to build a bridge to reduce the gap between the cyber world and physical word. Even though the introduction makes me think about the 4D cinema in Disney Land, apparently the interface the authors talked about here has less to with generating the ambient environment but generating the cyberspace information in the form of objects in the real world. This paper does not provide any evaluation or any idea of the evaluation. However, I believe this is the paper that majorly came up with a plan and offers a vision. In this case, it is okay to give a high-level thinking but without concerning about evaluating.

Jonathan Albert 14:17:41 11/5/2017

Tangible Bits: This paper discusses ways to implement ubiquitous computing. It surveys possible desk-, board-, and room-sized types of systems. The principles outlined in the paper--e.g., that focusing on "graspable, physical objects" can enhance interaction with computers--are interesting. Though I am no graphic artist, I always felt a computer mouse insufficient for creating any type of professional-looking image. Pen-based systems ameliorate this to a degree, but I think allowing artists to sculpt the 3D models they are trying to create might enhance the final product. Nevertheless, I think applying these principles to too broad an area would be an exercise in futility. Take, for example, the marble answering machine, and consider what children might do to it. The system does not know or care how far or variegated the path of a marble was in the user's hand--it is only concerned with its placement in one of the designated slots. While a traditional GUI would restrict input to what is valid, physical marbles offer no such validation. Handling all the million ways humans can get things wrong when given freeform input would make these systems too complex to be small. Nevertheless, it would be unfortunate if five less messages could be stored on a device because they had been thrown under a couch three months ago. ---- Getting in Touch: This document surveys various applications of ubiquitous computing devices. It explains how physical metaphors improve their affordance by making their function more self-evident. Regarding the map application, I could not help but think of how difficult it would be to expand upon it. Either there would have to be several hundred landmark statuettes stored on a nearby shelf, or there would be a few generic obelisks which would require more recall than recognition. In other words, taking the physical metaphor to the extreme results in inconvenience or absurdity, but reducing it to make it have wider application will reduce the affordance a physical system is supposed to provide. Even then, existing electronic solutions have generalized well enough in this area to make zooming and panning with a mouse much more intuitive than finding the Statue of Liberty and moving it closer to the Washington Monument. I do think that restricted scenarios, like meeting rooms, pose a promising area of application for these systems. Since the "users" of the room are generally professionals, and since it is in enough of a public space as to preclude irregular behavior, it may provide an area where the search space can be trimmed--where assumptions can be made to simplify the active room. As it stands, however, the proposed solution still has too many interworking, one-off devices like ID badges. If those could be somehow removed, the system could become more "invisible" and fluid.

Xingtian Dong 20:42:31 11/5/2017

1. Reading critique for ‘Getting in touch’ I think this chapter is a little useful. The author explains the generalization of Ubiquitous computing and some sample of systems. Some of them has been part of our life like pad, and some are still hot topics today like VR and AR. I think some of them are eliminated like reactive room(maybe not). It is somewhat inspiring to know how this techniques works and develops. But is doesn’t explain any in detail and it is too old. The idea of making use of sensors if still useful. And the examples give us hints on how to make use of the sensors. Combined with what we learned in last lecture about sensor fusion. It provides us a wider way to design software and interfaces. But I think that’s the only thing I get from this chapter. 2. Reading critique for ‘Tangible bits: Towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms’ I think this paper is really interesting. It comes up with concept Tangible User Interfaces(TUIs). In the related works part, this article overlaps a lot with last one. They are in the same area. To interpret TUI, the author listed three approached that he had tried: metaDESK, transBOARD and ambientROOM. These exmples illustrates how they make use of different sensors and computer techniques to shorten the gap between physical world and computing world. It also explained an important part which is optical metaphors, it is very useful to all the three approaches. This paper is really inspiring. If use sensors and some displays techniques to shorten the gap between worlds of atoms and bits. But I think computer vision and machine learning is more and more powerful. Is it possible to reduce the number of sensors by using camera instead. It can detect people’s movement even the heart rate. In this way, it might be more power saving. And it is also possible to make a laptop a powerful TUI.

Kadie Clancy 10:21:39 11/6/2017

Getting In Touch: The author points out that although personal computers have vastly changed since their inception, the outward design has remained largely the same and we interact with them in the same way: sitting at a desk, look at a screen, and typing on a keyboard. In this chapter the author presents some research where the alternative to conventional PCs is being explored, particularly ones that focus on tangible computing. Tangible computing is an approach that focuses on the relationship between computers and the world in which they operate. The author discusses ubiquitous computing, virtual and augmented reality, and tangible bits. The author summarizes Weiser’s vision of ubiquitous computing and mentions pads, tabs and boards which we read about earlier in the semester. The author also discusses tangible designs outside of a strictly computer science domain like the Marble Answering Machine and the Live Wire. The author summarizes the second reading for today about Tangible Bits including discussion on the metaDESK and the ambientROOM. It can be noted that these prototypes share a common set of issues, like the fact that there is no single point of control or interaction. Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces Between People, Bits and Atoms: Inspired by museum artifacts, the authors present the idea of Tangible Bits. Tangible Bits allow users to manipulate bits in the center of users’ attention by coupling them with everyday physical objects and surfaces. Tangible Bits also enables users to be aware of background bits using ambient display media like light and sound. The overall goal is to move beyond GUIs and establish Tangible User Interfaces. The author’s describe three prototypes: metaDESK, transBOARD, and ambientROOM. The metaDESK design physically embodies many of the metaphors utilized by GUIs like windows, icons, and handles. The ambientROOM design uses ambient ambient light, shadow, sound, and airflow as a way to communicate background information to users. I think this is an interesting concept because although ambient media is processed continually in the background, it can easily move into the center of attention when a user notices a change. The transBOARD design is a digital and physical whiteboard that transforms physical data into bits and puts it in cyberspace. Prototypes like these show the potential of tangible bits to provide a richer multi-sensory experience of digital information.

Spencer Gray 13:20:49 11/6/2017

In the first paper, the author describes how the desktop computer has gone under radical changes, but the interface and appearance of these machines has changed very little. While the processing speed, memory capacity, and monitor appearance have improved drastically, the shape of the computer is the same. In addition, the author also mentions ubiquitous computing and the different measurements that are associated with that. Connecting these ideas to virtual and augmented reality, we can easily see how the Internet of Things has evolved from when this paper was written in the 1990s. What I found most interesting was the part about tangible interfaces. Tangible interfaces are the result of research into the focus on the interface between the physical and virtual worlds. The things that the author describes in this section are exactly how society has progressed. We have e-books, electronic cash (cryptocurrency and online banking), and "paperless offices" where we store our information on servers instead of on paper. I found it interesting how accurate this prediction turned out to be. In the second paper called Tangible Bits, the authors describe two different worlds: the physical and cyber. Their goal in this paper was to bridge the gap between these two worlds by creating interactive surfaces, coupling bits with graspable physical objects, and understanding our surroundings with ambient media. At the time this paper was written, GUIs were the dominant interaction mechanism for computers. While this is still mostly true today, ubiquitous computing such as virtual reality and augmented reality are becoming more and more prevalent. This paper is important in the HCI literature because it is a step in the direction towards our current ubiquitous computing society. It identifies and explores the need for us to phase away from typical GUI interfaces.

Krithika Ganesh 13:21:02 11/6/2017

Getting in touch and Tangible bits, both papers’ primary focus was accomplishing Mark Weiser’s vision ubiquitous computing: computation should be woven in our everyday things and give us the feeling of invisible computing. Weiser introduced the concept of computation by foot (boards), by yard(pads) and by inch(tabs). Wellner’s vision was to make use of both the electronic documents and paper in a seamless way and he accomplished this by by having physical desktop which holds other objects like the video camera which captures the activity of the user. Weiser and Wellner came up with idea of augmented reality, bridging the gap between the real world and the virtual world. A user can pick up objects from the virtual world by augmenting sensors in the dataglove, it was as simple as that when we use the concept of VR. The ‘Reactive room’ is interesting concept as many times we forget why we entered a room and recording past activity would be an innovative idea. Tangible bits is indeed a great idea to bridge the gap between cyberspace and physical environment as well as for the foreground and background of human activities. To allow users to “grasp and manipulate” foreground bits by coupling bits with physical objects, the author introduces 2 prototypes: metaDESK and transBOARD. MetaDESK consistes of the activeLENS, passiveLENS and “phicon” – physical icons and instruments which can be kept on desk bringing to life the physical objects and instruments as elements of tangible interfaces. The transBOARD abasobs information form the physical world and transforms this data into bits into the cyberspace. To enable the users to be aware of the background bits at the periphery using ambient media, the author introduces the prototype ambientROOM. AmbientROOM goal was to one can take adavantage of the parallel background processing to convey information so that the user is not only aware of the foreground but also the background. Both the papers were an interesting read, and I believe that these prototypes may come to live in production by the theory of long nose of innocation.

MuneebAlvi 15:54:36 11/6/2017

Critique of Tangible Bits: Summary: This paper argues that human computer interfaces should move past interacting with a display and instead should also focus on interacting with physical objects. I appreciate the approach that this paper takes. I especially liked the idea of a marble answering machine. I wouldn't like to have such an answering machine, but i believe this idea can inspire other ideas. For example, what if we could teach students how to build programs with interactive lego blocks. Each block could represent different programming constructs such as variable declarations or control statements. The students could put the blocks together and see a program transform their structure into code in real time. I also appreciate the other ideas in the paper such as metaDesk and ambientRoom. However, I haven't seen truly practical and useful implementations of these since this paper was published over 20 years ago. This may be because i wasn't ever looking for these particular implementations or it could be that they are seamlessly integrated so well that it is difficult to notice. This may be the reason that transforming atoms to bits and vice versa as this paper suggests is one approach to ubiquitous computing. Critique of Getting in Touch Summary: This paper presents ideas similar to the first reading and to the reading describing Xerox PARC's pads and tabs. It also presents some ideas we haven't seen before in class such as The Digital Desk. I find this paper is a good summary of various approaches to ubiquitous computing. For example, the reading mentions the marble answering machine similar to the first reading. However, it also mentions another idea that seemed interesting to me, the Digital Desk. This idea interests me because I find taking notes during class as a mix of using the computer and using paper. In fact, I tried to use just my computer during the start of this semester to take notes. However, I soon learned that it was difficult to draw diagrams or perform other note taking tasks. Therefore, I am now exclusively using paper like I used to do before this semester. The Digital Desk presents an approach where it would be convenient if the professor's notes from the board could be projected onto my notes as described for the Digital Desk. Another aspect of the paper that intrigued me is the section on virtual reality. I had no idea that VR was being explored as early as the 1960s. However, as we learned in class, many of the technologies that we see today such as oculus or the htc vive actually have roots from many years ago. Therefore, perhaps other ideas from this paper like the pad, tab, and board should be explored today and be more deeply integrated into our everyday work or play lifestyle.

Tahereh Arabghalizi 15:55:41 11/6/2017

Getting in touch: This chapter is a brief introduction to the Tangible Computing which is the transition from desktop interaction to reality. This chapter begins by a summary of the history of the personal computer’s progress during twenty year. The author explains that very little has changed about PC including the way we interact with it and its software and its hardware stats. Then in next sections the author describes visions of ubiquitous computing by Mark Weiser. And he states that both of those visions involved computationally with augment reality. Then he explains that the reality room experiment was conducted and showed the benefits of using the paradigm of tangible computing for managing configurations automatically in a reactive environment. The author also discussed examples of current tangible computing work that was done by Tangible Bits group at the MIT Media Lab. The key to all of these technologies is coupling the physical with the virtual. At the end of this chapter, the concept of tangible computing is probed in a meaningful way. The author points out three important features that distinguish tangible computing from other kinds of computing. For instance, interactions are not likely to be sequential in tangible interfaces. In conclusion, tangible computing devices can offer affordances that make their usage very natural. This chapter was interesting and novel because it relates ubiquitous computing with tangible computing. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms: This paper addresses Tangible Bits as a way to interact with the virtual world of a computer via graspable objects in physical environments. The authors introduce Tangible User Interface and some prototypes which follow the integrating computation approach. These prototypes deal with three different interaction categories including: surfaces, coupling of objects with bits and ambient media. In the first two categories the prototypes try to create a novel channel of communication via physical objects. They are context-aware so the interactions can be captured through monitoring changes in physical properties of objects. Then the authors introduce ambientROOM that is a prototype (third category) that uses ambient media to subtly display and communicate information which is not the user’s primary foreground task and it can utilize most human senses concurrently. This paper was so interesting and I think tangible computing can be the next evolution in computer science that makes computers much closer to human nature.

Ahmed Magooda 19:38:29 11/6/2017

Getting in Touch: In this chapter the author discuss the concept of Tangible Computing, tangible Computing is the same concept as ubiquitous computing which was proposed by Mark Weiser. Lately computers started to get different than what a traditional computer used to look like. While we are still far from the ubiquitous computing vision proposed by Weiser where computers should blend in the fabric of everyday routine to the extent that people no longer feel they are dealing with computers and computers would be as if they disappeared, nowadays we are on the right track. The chapter discussed some of the different forms and application of ubiquitous computing like (active badges, palm size computers, live board, digital Desk, etc..). The author also discussed how there was also some research directed towards virtual reality. Another research was done by MIT group where they focused on the interface between physical world and virtual world and what is the applications of interfacing between atoms and bits. In a nutshell the paper summarized history of how the PC evolves, and how should the interaction with human follow that change. And it also gave a slight vision of how interaction with humans can look like in the future. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms: This paper presents the vision of Tangible Media Group from MIT for human computer interaction. It discusses the future of HCI and discusses some prototypes such as metaDESK, transBOARD and ambientROOM. In an orthodox HCI the interface is the (rectangular screen) of a PC, however in tangible user interface the interface will be the physical world. The goal of tangible bits is to bridge the gap between physical environment and the cyberspace. The paper give some details about the three prototypes. In metaDESK, which is an augmented reality desk. User can use physical objects on a desk to change the graphical output of the computer. Another prototype which is ambientROOM, uses elements like light, air and so on to convey information. The last prototype which is transBOARD is a digitally enhanced physical board that absorbs information form the physical world and feeds to the computer.

Akhil Yendluri 20:16:39 11/6/2017

Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms
This paper aims at merging the virtual and the physical world through tangible bits. This is used to grasp the attention of the user while also making the user aware of the details at the periphery of the human vision. This paper talks about how the bits and the physical world are coupled to give an interactive surface for the user and also about how ambient light is used for background awareness. The author wants to give an advantage to the user by modifying the painted bits to tangible bits by using multiple modalities of the user. The author gives the example of metaDesk, tangible geospace and ambient room for tangible bits. He also gives the example of Abacus which helped Ishii in various aspects. The author also feels that the abacus is the direction in which the next generation of HCI products should work on.
Getting in Touch
This paper talks about Human Computer Interface and Ubiquitous Computing by starting with the introduction and history of computers and reflecting on how far it has come from the time. The author also explains about tangible computing paradigm. The author uses the example of PARC Pad and tab as an example of ubiquitous computing. He explains the history of the Digital Desk, reactive room and Virtual Reality. He then explains tangible bits with metaDESK, Phicons and Tangible Geospace as examples. He also explains how the physical and virtual world can be used together as an interface to enhance the users abilities through tangible bits.

Xiaoting Li 20:55:56 11/6/2017

1. Getting in Touch: In this chapter, the author introduces tangible interfaces by presenting the idea of ubiquitous computing, the way how users interact with physical objects in ubiquitous computing, and the products of the MIT lab in this area. The author also brings up challenges and new design problems in tangible interface. Since Weiser proposed the ubiquitous computing model, lots of work has been done in this area. The author makes it easier to understand the concept of tangible interface and what it it trying to solve by giving us example of work done by the MIT lab. For example, the author thinks that the metaDESK as input technologies and the Ambient Room as output show us that tangible interface is to find the interconnected tangible media in between the input and output from the daily environment. 2. Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces Between People, Bits and Atoms: In this paper, the authors present their vision of HCI by describing three concepts of Tangible Bits: interactive interfaces; the coupling of bits with graspable physical objects; and ambient media for background awareness. The authors identify underlying research issues by introducing three prototype system, including the metaDESK, transBOARD, and ambientROOM. The authors believe that people can have richer multi-sensory experience of information world if we make good use of graspable objects and ambient media. Even though the paper doesn’t give a solution to any single problem, it is interesting that the authors raise a set of new questions to go beyond GUI to inspire researchers for future work in this area.

Charles Smith 23:33:07 11/6/2017

on: tangible bits This paper looks into the use of more, and different input and output devices. Stepping away from the traditional computer desktop opens up many new creative possibilities. The authors of this paper create an Augmented Reality (AR) that is different from the traditional 'overlay screen' approach. This leads into many new opportunities, which is the goal of this paper, rather than to answer their own questions. The author propose many new interfaces, such as a background audio representing page hits. While this situation could be easily replaced by a traditional alert, it is still very interesting and could apply to other situations. On: Getting in Touch This chapter looks at a collection of ideas to change how the computer looks. These ideas (mostly from the 80's and 90's) are from, or relate to other papers we have read. All these ideas try to implement ubiquitous computing and revolutionize the industry. While today's computer still sometimes looks like the authors 166 MHz, 64 MB RAM machine, some ideas from that time have made it today. Ideas like 'tab' and 'pad' sized machines can be found on just about anyone on campus.

Mehrnoosh Raoufi 0:39:11 11/7/2017

​​ Getting in Touch: In this chapter, the author went through the history of computing and how it turned to tangible and ubiquitous computing. The author argued that the way we use computers has not changed over the time significantly. we still sit at a desk to look at the monitor and controlling the computer by mouse and keyboard. It is not the only form of using computer that remained the same, the main thing is that the role of computer in our life remained the same. Unlike the idea of ubiquitous computing that says computing would disappear in our daily life as it becomes invisible because a vast variety of objects would have the power of computing. Including what we wear, even a pen and etc. Then, the author talked about different types of ubiquitous computing that have been implemented in recent years. One of the examples is virtual reality and augmented reality. These technologies visualize a virtual three-dimensional world for the human. Another example is reactive room in which computing is distributed throughout the whole environment such as walls, pens, and etc. It attempts to exploit the fact that people's activities happen in a context. Thus, a software would be able to disambiguate human actions. At last the author indicated that all the aforementioned developments were contributed from computer science to tangible computing. While computer science is not the only thing that plays role in this field. The author explained that art and design are the other contributors. These two factors have been inspirational for many researchers in this area. ------------------------------------------------------------- Tangible Bits::: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms: This paper aimed to give an overview of the different type of HCI that goes beyond traditional GUI-based HCI, called tangible bits. The author clarified that GUI translates information to painted bits on a screen. The authors attempted to change this translation to tangible bits. In this way, they hope to address the limitation of GUI-based which limits physical environment to a rectangular screen. In addition, they presented some prototypes in this research area such as metaDesk, transBoard, and ambientRoom. Each of these prototypes has tried to bridge the gap that exists between physical world and world of bits information through graspable objects and ambient media.

Yuhuan Jiang 0:56:55 11/7/2017

Paper Critiques for 11/07/2017 == Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms == The paper introduces a concept named Tangible Bits, which aims at providing an immersive experience by merging bits into physical objects and architectural surfaces. Here, “bits” refers to digital information. The goal of tangible bits is to shorten the gap between, according to the authors, cyberspace and the physical environment. To achieve this goal, some key concepts must be introduced. First, Interactive Surface are everyday surfaces such as walls, desktops, ceilings, doors, windows, turned into an interface between human and virtual worlds. Second, we need to couple bits and atoms, by relating graspable physical objects with their digital counterparts. Third, we need to make use of ambient media (e.g., sound, light, airflow) to provide an immersive background. To related to today’s technology, Augmented Reality is the latest implementation of the what the authors have envisioned with Tangible Bits. A 3D model can now be placed onto surfaces in the physical world. A user may use their hand to interact with those objects. == Getting in Touch == This book chapter serves as a survey of the various approaches to improve the interaction between users and desktop computers, which do not seem to have change much since their inception. The first concept this chapter investigates is Ubiquitous Computing, where computationally enhanced walls, floors, pens, and desks makes computing disappear into everyday lives. Next, an implementation named Digital Desk by Wellner is introduced. It is a desktop that can hold paper, pens, and traditional office supplies, which are captured by cameras, and enhanced by a projector. The chapter also investigates Virtual Reality and Automated Reality, with example of the Reactive Room. The most interesting part of the paper has the heading “Design Trends”. This is a section which summaries the general patterns that designers follow. Bishop’s answer machine uses stocks of marbles, which represents digital audio messages. Natalie Jeremijenko’s Dangling String uses plastic strings hanging from the ceiling to represent the movement of data packets. Awareness is also a design trend. The paper Tangible Bits is cited by this book chapter, as a direct focus on the interface between the physical and virtual world. The author thinks that Tangible Bits provides some balance to the idea that a transition from atoms to bits is inevitable and uniformly positive.

Sanchayan Sarkar 3:19:10 11/7/2017

CRITIQUE 1 (Getting In Touch) This paper contextualizes the evolution of interactive personal computing and the recent advances continuing in that discipline. It highlights over the major vision of Mark Weiser of ‘Ubiquitous’ Computing or ‘Computing by Inch, Foot and Yard’ and his use of post-It notes, pads and Liveboards. Along with this, research was going on in making paperless devices in terms of ‘Digtal Desk’. Interactive computing was also enhanced by virtual reality and tangible computing. Although these two innovations were diametrically opposite to each other, they both served the purpose of a closer human to computer interaction. One of the merits of this paper is the way it projects the ‘long nose of innovation’ for a certain state of technical development. It shows how certain technologies of today have been influenced by multiple disciplines of yesteryears. A similar parallel can be drawn with respect to mobile computing where two streams of research in mobile devices and desktop computing evolved and converged into smartphones of today. Another example is in Artificial Intelligence where Knowledge Base Systems and Biological Based models were used for two decades before getting converged into Machine Learning algorithms of today. Similarly, this sort of evolution is observed in Human Computer Interaction as well, and this paper project it out. Another interesting aspect of the paper is the “Reactive Room”. It can be thought as a precursor to the modern day smart home. Although still in its infancy, one cannot neglect the huge similarities between the two. Every development in enhanced interactivity can be traced back to this paper. Hence, this paper is excellent for knowing how the seeds of innovation came into being. ******************************************************************************** CRITIQUE 2 (Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces Between People, Bits and Atoms) This paper asserts the use of physical objects with rich affordances as digital objects meant for interacting with the machine. In other words, this paper is mainly geared towards ‘Ubiquitous’ computing in terms of interactivity. The authors claim that GUI is a limitation to achieving ubiquity. It restates that if physical objects that is used in the natural world can be augmented with digital information, then it would offer as a far richer interactive device with the digital world. This is highly relevant in today’s world with wearable devices like Smartwatches. A smartwatch is a normal watch augmented with smart applications. It incorporates all the elements that one expect in an embedded environment but offers far richer affordance than a screen or desktop. Similarly this paper tries to embed three concepts: interactive surfaces, coupling of digital information with real objects and ambient modalities in the periphery of human perception for background interactions. It demonstrates that by presenting four systems: metaDESK (augmented device), transBOARD (a digital whiteboard), ambientROOM (different modalities touching human perception and completing the cognitive functions of metaDESK) and Tangible Geospace (interactive platform for metaDESK). Each of these were designed to articulate the different aspects of ‘Tangible Computing’. Although this is highly promising as it shifts from a ‘Desktop’ Metaphor to a ‘Optical’ Metaphor, it also bears with it the inherited flaws of the real objects. Designers must be careful not to get carried away with physical augmentation as physical devices have flaws like that of speed, movement, weight, etc. Therefore consolidating that using digital augmentation might be challenging. Another issue is the metaphor of ‘Uncanny Valley’ which is the line when the user starts to feel that the interaction is too real to be true. In other words, the user knows that the interaction is digital and yet the real-like features of it might trigger an uneasiness which might defeat the purpose of ‘invisibility’ of Ubiquitous Computing. Despite this, the paper is a solid introduction to ‘Tangible Computing’ and does well in presenting this aspect of Human Computer Interaction.

Amanda Crawford 7:01:23 11/7/2017

Getting in Touch, Paul Dourish in Where the Action Is, pp. 25-54 The chapter introduces the concept of tangible computing. Taking a look at the computer, the author notes that although the size and look of the computer has changed over time, the way we interact with computers has not gone beyond the concept of GUI's. Ubiquitous computing solves the problem of creating everyday devices but tangible computing focuses on taking everyday interactions as a form of human computer interaction. This is an interesting area for me as this field of research is applicable to developing educational technology for diverse learning styles and needs. Students who learn best through immersive hands on experiences would benefit most from the developments within this field. Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms, Hiroshi Ishii and Brygg Ullmer, In Proc of CHI 1997How do we develop technologies that allows the user to use and portray their identity and knowledge from the physical world to the cyberspace? This paper explores this question from the perspective of capturing the foreground and background reality by extracting the affordances of peripheral senses of our physical world to the digital realm. The article discusses three projects, metaDESK, transBOARD, ambientROOM to help explain this meaning. Through these projects, the authors shows us the potential use of creating interactive computing interactions and steers away from the traditional GUI and User relationship. They thinned the line between virtual reality and augmented reality.

Ruochen Liu 8:49:33 11/7/2017

1. Getting in Touch: This chapter of the book is a detailed overview of tangible interfaces. From the origin of the concept to the prototypes and applications of this kind of human-computer-interface, lots of concepts and application examples are reviewed or introduced. It explains why tangible interface is an important developing trend for the future interface. What impress me a lot are the ideas presented in the book following Mark Weiser’s ubiquitous computing. They really bring new fields with new opportunities to the researchers and builders of human-computer-interface. I personally believe Graphical User Interface is at its peak and there is no much developmental space for it. With the progress of development of ubiquitous computer, the interaction between human and physical real world will be more and more desirable and meaningful. The future style of interaction concerns not simply the set of physical devices like keyboards, screens, and mice or the set of virtual devices like scroll bars, icons, and menus, but also the ways in which the future computer fits into human’s lives and environments. There are still many challenges and problems for tangible interface to tackle, and it still needs more time for this promising interaction technology to mature. 2. Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms: This paper mainly introduce the tangible interface, which is believed to be the next generation of human-computer interface. Most of the current HCIs are GUI (Graphical User Interface)-based, this kind of interface uses graphical vision as the only media and it is traditional and dominating. However, it fails to make use of most of the human senses and skills that are used in the interaction with the physical world. The painted bits is the only way that conveys information between human and computer. Base on the concept of ubiquitous computing by Mark Weiser, the tangible interface is presented. It change painted bits into tangible bits by taking use of multiple senses and the mutli-modality of human interactions with the real world. The use of graspable objects and ambient media can bring a better and richer mutli-sensory interaction experience to the users. For the illustration of tangible interface, several prototypes like metaDESK, transBOARD and ambientROOM are introduced. MetaDESK physically embody metaphorical devices like windows, icons and handles, trying to push back GUIs into the physical world. Tangible Geospace is an application of metadesk. The ambientROOM use ambient media like ambient light, shadow, sound, water flow and airflow as the means for communication information between human and computer. The networked digitally-built physical whiteboard named transBOARD is a prototype of interactive surface that acquires information from real world and transforms it into bits and then distributes it into cyberspace. I think tangible interface is a really potential candidate for the next generation of human-computer-interface.

Ronian Zhang 8:53:43 11/7/2017

Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms: In this paper, the author envisions the future of HCI. He proposed Tangible bits which enables user to communicate font and background at the periphery using ambient media (like light, sound, air, water) in augmented space. The paper is quite interesting since it pretty much like what we see in a scientific movie. It shows some design projects such as metaDESK, transBOARD and ambientROOM. In summary, the metaDESK shows graphical ui on a desk, tansBOARD tries to find more information from the real world and translate them into digital information, and ambientROOM tries to interact with users on the periphery of senses without using explicit interactions. The former 2 prototypes focus on user’s attention and the latter 1 focus on background information. In traditional HCI, the interface is in the PC side, but in Tangible UI is the actual physical world. The key point it to use walls, doors, seamless coupling of everyday graspable objects as interactive surface. Undoubted, by using more dimension input from the user, it could much more improve the users experience.————————————————————————————— Getting in touch: In this article, the author also envisions the future of tangible device. He argues that the computer now only changes very little and tangible device is the trend of future computer. The author first introduces ubiquitous computing, he states Weiser’s opinion that in the future, computers should disappear into the background. Then, the author proposes computation by inch, which is the development of small, portable devices; digital desk which focus on paperless office and combines both reality and virtual reality. The author further discusses vr and ar. Vr immerses the user in computer generated reality, and ar moves the computation device to the real world. Then he proposes the concept of tangible bits which could interact people in a better way and display information more naturally, control things more easily. The articles also discusses the challenges in tangible computing: we need to figure out how tangible interaction transforms the sequential nature of interaction. If we use tangible interaction, the order is no longer the assumption and moves into parallel which is difficult to guess what would be user’s next move. I think more theoretical work is needed to analysis the tangible interaction in a more systematical way.