Ubiquitous Computing

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Readings


Ubicomp Demo Video By Mark Weiser

Reading Critiques

Sanchayan Sarkar 2:52:03 9/27/2017

CRITIQUE 1 (The Computer for the 21st Century)---- In this paper, author Mark Weiser presents a vision in which he sees the world which computing becomes so prevalent that it will remain no longer an object of attention but one that has become one with the environment. One of the best features of this paper is the use of multiple analogies to explain the notion of ‘ubiquitous computing’. The perfect example is to that of the evolution of writing and how it has become ubiquitous in the human mind. Another merit of this paper is the explanation through contrasting scenarios. The author contrasts their proposed concept against that of ‘multimedia computers’, ’virtual reality’ or ‘portable devices’ and in the process it eliminates the false notions that readers may have of the real crux of ‘ubiquitous’ computing. In fact, ‘ubiquitous computing’ tries to achieve the opposite. The paper discusses the central aspects of ‘ubiquitous computing’: location and scale. It also enlists a set of conditions of cheap, low power computers with high performance CPU resources and efficient networking algorithms. All these are aimed to computing out of the virtual world into the real world. It wants to aid the physical space to embody virtuality. For example it seeks to use tabs as pieces of paper but which are interactive. A recent example of such a thing is Sixth Sense technology where the entire environment can be used as a space for computing, sharing displays and content. In terms of some of the concerns shared by the author, most of them are out of relevance now because all his conditions are met. With the evolution of Big data, parallel computing, clouds, etc., the resources are much more. So, some of the challenges are overcome. However, the process of achieving ‘ubiquitous’ nature is still not achieved. New concerns have come up. Therefore the process of evolution is still relevant. Also, the social challenges like privacy and visibility are issues we are still facing in today’s world. To sum it up, the paper, with its’ vivid illustrations of scenarios, is very helpful in understanding the core of the Weiser’s vision. ************************************************************************************** CRITIQUE 2 (Charting Past, Present and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing)---- In this paper, the authors present the three directions of application based research that ubiquitous computing will drive: context-aware, natural interface and automated capture and access. The author also proposes a fourth theme of everyday computing, it’s challenges and prospects in the future ears. The paper does a good job of delineating the challenges of apps supporting natural interfaces: error handling and establishing primitives for different types of input. It insists that increasing recognition accuracy may not necessarily increase the user satisfaction of naturalness. Rather, the way in which the system responds to errors might be a better indicator. Regarding Context-aware computing, I liked the five aspects of Context that can be explored: Who-What-Where-When-Why. The What & Why is more interesting to me because it involves interpreting human activity and human affect states. Both are recognition problems that have huge implications in robotics and computer vision. Another interesting thing that the author discuss is ‘Augmented Reality’ as a combination of natural interface and context-awareness. A well done example are the audio guided museum tours where on reaching certain exhibits, the system recognizes the exhibits (context) and provide instantaneous speech commentary on the exhibits (natural interface). Further, in case of automatic capture, the author stresses on real time information capture and analysis. A vivid example is the evolution of motion capture systems in film making from 2003 to the real time performance capture systems of the present age. The present systems employed in movies like “Planet of the Apes” virtually makes the performance of the actors through special suits seamless and a much direct translation of acting to screen is obtained. The author presents an interesting prospect of “Everyday Computing” and the challenges that new applications must consider: unstructured tasks, interruptive tasks, concurrent tasks, etc. Everyday computing would also face a huge challenge in scalability issues associated with ubiquitous computing and evaluation of such systems. One of the interesting thing I found here is that there are no standardized evaluation models. Hence, the need for a user-side perspective on the usability of the system is so important. The author produces two case studies to demonstrate that. Another fascinating counter-intuitive phenomenon is the idea of “invisibility” as a social challenge. This challenge of who is sensing the user or when is the user being sensed is a huge issue of privacy. A system must make sure that the user is aware of this. And yet, the system must also ensure that it remain as seamless as possible (not get in the way of the user). This tradeoff between two opposing forces of similar kind is an interesting aspect to be delved into. The paper is important as it covers the breadth of various such challenges (or their combinations) and research prospects, that ubiquitous systems will bring in the interface design of the next generation.

Krithika Ganesh 9:14:28 9/27/2017

The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper stresses that computers should consider the human world and they themselves should vanish in the background defining a new meaning to ubiquitous computing: using the power of computers everywhere to create a notion of embodied virtuality, that gives us a feeling of ‘invisible computing’. The author explains this concept by giving illustrations of active badges and live boards devices. What is interesting is that the concept of embodied virtuality does not come from the devices mentioned but it emerges from the interaction of all of them. The author also discusses few problems that emerge from embodied virtuality and proposes solutions to few. For instance, would it be a clever idea to have active badges (smart badges) as national IDs with features like capability of storing data banking information and biometric statistics? Yes indeed, one card and everything sorted. But what if a hacker cracks the pin to that card? He gets hold of all your details. Fortunately, there are plenty of techniques to protect privacy: Cryptography being one. The author mentions about scratchpads and radio transmitter, which has been replaced by touch pads like Ipads and hotspot technology respectively today. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Charting past, present and future research in Ubiquitous computing: The paper states that application research in the field of ubiquitous computing has pushed 3 interaction themes which are: natural interfaces, context aware interfaces and automated capture and access. It defines a new area of research: ‘everyday computing’ by designing the continuous interaction between the human and computer. It also addresses the social implication and challenges of evaluating ubiquitous research. While computing with natural interface one much design a first-class natural interface which takes input as naturally as mouse or keyboard does at the same time keep in mind that recognition based interfaces cannot be perfected and are error prone. How many times has finger print scanning given up on us while unlocking our phones (due to water or sweat on our finger)? While designing context aware computing one needs to not only consider position and identity but also the 5 Ws and couple it with natural interaction- augmented reality. Many of the today’s devices still fail to consider the ‘why’ aspect of context. While designing automated capture and access, one should handle what one is not good at doing so that the user can focus on something more important. What interested me the most was ‘Rooms interface’, as many times we do forget why we entered the room and recording past activity would be an innovative idea. Almost every city has surveillance cameras, for instance there are 420,000 cameras in the city of London. So, we are being recorded all the time, the irony being our own privacy is invaded while the actual moto behind is safety. The author mentions that people should be given a choice to stop and start the recording, which is not really a clever idea in case of surveillance camera as the whole purpose of it is lost.

Tahereh Arabghalizi 17:10:13 9/27/2017

The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper discusses about ubiquitous computing and its benefits, putting computers be parts of devices that people use every day, so that using computers becomes part of normal living rather than a specific machine. Ubiquitous computing involves innovations such as personal identification badges that report on people’s location and their preferences, this way computers respond to the needs of users with minimal input from user. The paper also points out that using ubiquitous computing might be risky in some ways. A device could be designed to capture information about a person and then send the information to advertisers or government, so the security of such systems is very crucial. Nowadays, the emergence of Internet of Things demonstrates that this paper’s predictions about ubiquitous computing are coming true. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This paper outlines the meaning of ubiquitous computing and some of its requirements namely natural interfaces and context-awareness. The authors have identified three research themes for ubiquitous computing as well as highlighted some of the remaining challenges. They point out that the real goal for ubiquitous computing is to provide many single-activity interactions that together promote a unified and continuous interaction between humans and computational services. They also argue that merging multiple forms of media can add value to ubiquitous computing that users might not be able to experience in a different way. The authors discuss about some of the challenges that designers and implementers of ubiquitous computers encounter and they suggest some possible solutions. For instance, implementing a natural interface is hard because programming languages do not provide a good way to store complicated inputs like pen drawings. The authors suggest that languages should be made to treat input via these media as first-class data types. Another challenge is understanding complex input namely speech without making errors. The authors suggest using multiple computers to capture the same input and then collaborate over a network to understand it. Although these proposed solutions are not the only solutions that one can offer, they seem thoughtful and interesting. Similarly to the previous paper, the paper also mentions the security concerns that come with ubiquitous computing.

Xiaoting Li 17:30:40 9/27/2017

1. The Computer for the 21st Century: In this paper, the author introduces the concept of ubiquitous computing. He points that the requirement of hardware technologies, such as cheap and low-power computers, can be easily met for ubiquitous computing. However, another two parts required for ubiquitous computing, software for ubiquitous applications and a network that ties them all together, are still the challenges in this area. The interesting part in this paper is that the author exemplify the idea of ubiquitous computing by showing us a future scene of how ubiquitous computing is being applied in people’s everyday life. It gives the readers a better understanding of the concept of ubiquitous computing. From the scene, we can also see that privacy is a key issue in this area. Nowadays, computer scientists are making progress to make the scene in this paper become reality. The inventions of Amazon Alexa and Google Home are good examples to show the development of ubiquitous computing in today’s world. 2. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: In this paper, the authors chart the course of ubicomp research in the last decade since the inspiring work of Weiser and colleagues at Xerox PARC. The authors review the accomplishment in the area and at the same time point out the challenges in this area. In addition, the authors posit a new area of application research, everyday computing. From the trajectory of ubicomp that is introduced by the authors, we can see that scaling in one of the key elements that lead to the success of ubicomp. Scaling in ubicomp covers a lot of aspects, including the number and type of devices, physical space of distributed computing, number of people using a system, and the interaction respect to time. Like the paper The Computer for the 21st Century, the authors in this paper also mentions that privacy is one of the concerns in ubicomp. The concern about privacy shows us that social and legal practices also need to evolve in concert with the technological and design innovations. The one good take-away message that I learn from this paper is that the authors point out the natural interfaces used for recognition-based tasks should not try to eliminate errors but should try to find better ways to deal with them since eliminating errors may not be possible and recognition accuracy is not the only determinant of user satisfaction.

Kadie Clancy 17:38:55 9/27/2017

The Computer for The 21st Century: In this paper, Mark Weiser discusses the idea of ubiquitous computing as the new way of thinking about computing: that computers should vanish into the background of the human world. Weiser argues that ubiquitous computers must know their location, and come in different sizes that are suited to particular tasks. These ideas are illustrated through Xerox PARC’s tab, pad, and board technologies. Tabs are inch-scale machines, pads are foot-scale machines, and boards are yard-scale machines. Each is suited for different tasks and the ultimate goal is to have hundreds of these machines in a single room. These prototypes allowed researchers to identify concerns about the future of ubiquitous computing, which interestingly prove to be challenges of modern ubiquitous computing. For example, the question of how to handle the secure exchange of data between these many devices is still relevant today. The author proposes an idealized scenario in which users will interact with tabs, pads and boards. While the scenario predicts interesting ways in which users can interact with ubiquitous computing, the particular implementation seems to have several points of concern. First, it is noted that these devices will have battery life of, at most, several days. Tabs are meant to be used as small post-it notes, or as flash drives for individual files. Users are envisioned to have large collections of these devices at once, so large that Weiser said it may be “impossible to find all computers in a room.” The inconvenience of carrying around huge collections of these tiny computers seems obvious, not to mention the inconvenience of having to round up these devices and charge them every few days. In my opinion, tabs seem to be a step away from ubiquitous computing because they seems so tedious to use and keep track of that it is doubtful they will ever be “embodied virtuality.” While their implementation seemed flawed, the researchers at Xerox envisioned the idea of ubiquitous computing and correctly predicted its usefulness and popularity. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This paper presents the evolution of ubiquitous computing research in the decade after Weiser introduced “The Computer for the 21st Century.” The authors outline three ubicomp interface themes: natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. They also introduce a new theme, called everyday computing, that promotes the unstructured activities that compose a human’s daily life. This theme addresses scaling issues with respect to time; ubicomp systems move computing from a centralized tool to a constant presence. Aside from outlining the successes of the field of ubicomp, the paper also presents the current challenges that need be considered or overcome when developing ubiquitous computing systems. First mentioned is the challenge of evaluating ubicomp systems, as the formative and summative evaluation of these systems is difficult. Second is the challenge of social implications. Social Implications include the privacy and security of collected data, the visibility of when data is being collected, and the user control to stop the gathering of data. Not only do the authors list these challenges, they also create examples of appropriate and practical use of the collected information. One of the merits of this paper is that it recognizes Weiser’s initial idea, but also notes the need to promote a broader view of ubiquitous computing that promotes general purpose utility alongside the challenges that need be addressed. The recognition of these challenges, and the mention that there are more yet to be discovered, provides direction for designers of future ubiquitous computing systems concerning issues to be aware of, and possibly solve, with their designs.

Jonathan Albert 20:13:12 9/27/2017

Computers 21st Century: This document theorizes about the "Internet of Things" before the term was in vogue. It considers what must take place for "embodied virtuality" to be viable, and how far away such advancements are. The idea that, in order for computers to be truly ubiquitous, they must "disappear" has seemingly been forgotten in our age--or simply never heeded. Every new device either requires almost full attention to use (such as smart phones) or makes no attempt to mesh itself into the existing environment (e.g., the Alexa obelisk). However, there is a missing link between what we have today and the almost impossible (if not undesirable) future of having computers as common as paper. Putting a screen or internet capabilities onto every surface or object is neither feasible nor healthy for the eyes or other radiation-sensitive organs. Nevertheless, the author's idea that computers should enhance our reality and not seek to replace it carries considerable insight for our culture. The author also touched on an important concern when he mentioned securing transfer of information among all these devices. A fully-fledged IoT would spell the end of privacy outside one's own mind. For the concept of ubiquitous computing to work, however, capable devices must be cheap, whereas cryptographically secure access methods are decidedly not. I doubt a user would enjoy waiting an extra thirty seconds for their IoT armchair to determine their identity and adjust its posture just so their SSN would not be stolen by a sofa. It has been said "security at the expense of usability comes at the expense of security;" this must be taken into account to avoid the totalitarian extremes mentioned in the paper. ---- Past, Present, Future: This article surveys attempts at natural, context-aware interfaces capable of automatic data capture and access. It calls for further research in the area of ubiquitous computing, stressing the importance of developing a viable evaluation method for such interfaces. The authors raise concern about defining a general human task, and specifically about a task's duration. Recording information about long-term goals seems especially daunting, considering the multifaceted and indirect sub-tasks that may contribute to a single goal. At its heart, I think such an issue boils down to making computers able to interpret fuzzy logic. However, I think those systems may be doomed to a loop of a few actions after a human agent discovers their limitations. In other words, a diffident user would groan at a device that complained of their spontaneity until they capitulated to a regular set of societal gesticulations for the sake of not needing to remember what happened yesterday, goaded along by reinforcement algorithms. This also raises the question of what data is desirable for automatic capture and access. Businesses would be keen on analyzing as much information as they could to improve their marketing strategies, but what use would an average individual have for a big data warehouse attached to their hip? What will happen to basic human mentality if first-order knowledge, i.e. facts, no longer need to be remembered--even for one's own actions? I highly doubt this will ever be the case, but prospective designers should be cognizant of the ramifications.

MuneebAlvi 20:54:23 9/27/2017

Critique of The Computer for the 21st century Summary: This paper predicts that computers will be everywhere in the 2000s. The paper also describes in what ways computers will be present such as with tabs, pads, and boards. I am amazed that many of the predictions in this article have come true. Some of these predictions are that resolution on screens will increase dramatically and that we will have gigabit internet which will be common (however it is still not that common). Another important note is that the author predicted that the tabs, pads, and boards would require devices to have multiple networks. These networks would consist of tiny range frequency, medium range frequency, and long range frequency. Many modern cell phones have nfc and various other radios to handle these multiple distance frequencies and interactions. The paper also mentioned that devices would need to detect their location. Again, many devices such as cell phones have GPS and in an office environment, a laptop's location can be derived from which network it is connected to. This paper predicts that tabs, pads, and boards would be present in many workspaces around the world. However, I don’t believe this is true. I know that we have things like computers and tablets in many locations but tablets do not consist of the same ideas as the pads described in the paper. Useful tablets are too expensive to put multiple ones in every room of a company or school building. The tabs mentioned in the paper seemed like they would be cheaper but reliable alternatives. Also, I have not been to many work environments or know of many environments (corporate or academic) that incorporates the kinds of devices described in the paper to the extent described. Critique of Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing Summary: This article analyzes ubiquitous computers from the perspective of natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. It also considers how ubiquitous computing will affect HCI research. The paper predicts several technologies that have become ubiquitous today. It mentions wearable tech and we now have smart watches. A smart watch blends a technology that was already ubiquitous (a watch) with the functionality of a mobile device. A smart watch also allows users to interact with it using natural ways such as speech. The paper also mentions difficulty translating pen input into text. These days, we have devices like iPad Pros and Surfaces which translate the pen input into a more readable form. However, once again like the first reading, this reading mentions a future where ubiquitous computers will make the way we interact with the world more natural. Both readings mention that we find better ways of interaction than with a mouse and keyboard or traditional computers. However, I am writing this critique in Hillman Library and all I see around me are students with laptops using mouse and keyboard. I also do not see any smart screens that provide any more functionality than being large touch screens. Therefore, I wonder if the authors of both these papers are surprised to the limited amount of ubiquitous computing surrounding us today. Of course everyone has a mobile device, but I feel like the authors were describing a future where the environment around us, and not personal belongings, would be filled with new ways to interact with the world. As the paper suggests, I feel as though AR might be an alternative approach to interact with the world. It does not require the environment around us to change physically but requires users to wear a headset to interact with potentially everything around us. Cost, reducing hardware size, and appeal seem to be some primary factors holding back the wide use of AR.

Ahmed Magooda 21:15:51 9/27/2017

The computer of the 21th century In this paper the authors are discussing the idea of ubiquitous computing where computers would emerge and blend in all ways of life while stay hidden and not noticeable as being computers. The authors argue that for something like that to happen computers should blend in a way where people no longer feel that they are carrying these computers with them, they need to feel that these pads or tabs are part of their daily lives it is something like paper or clothes that you no longer feel you are carrying around. The authors then go by mentioning some examples of these devices like ID pads and smart boards. Then the authors go on narrating an imaginary situation where someone is interacting in her daily life with multiple computing devices that are well blended in the daily life, starting from waking up passing by going from home to work and other work related situations. I think this paper represents a trend that was dominant back then about smart life and smart homes automated devices and son on, which is taking places these days in the form of IOE antonyms cars and so on . I think the paper is very optimistic and overly simplifying things especially regarding the security issue, security is a real big problem and i think it is one of the major obstacles for adopting smart applications in many aspects nowadays as it compromises people's personal lives and security. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing In this paper Authors are providing a survey of ubiquitous computing and how it is dividing into three categories {natural interface, context aware applications and automated capture and access}. The paper then goes on by discussing each category while providing some the limitations. While natural interface tries to incorporate the natural way humans interacts like speech, gesture, gaze, etc.. it still suffers from errors. These errors are targeted in nowadays research by using one of the three paradigms, error discovery, error reduction and error correction. The paper then goes to the second category which is context aware applications, the authors discuss the most dominant context information that is used even nowadays which is "where", the computing device uses the knowledge of where it is to provide some useful information to the user, while the "where" is the most used one, authors argue that computing devices should also be aware of other questions like "when, who, what and why", where knowing who is using the device in what purpose and when can actually lead to more interactive and useful applications. The last category is automated capturing; it would be useful to let some devices capture information that we need so that we can focus on other tasks, however introducing such things to our daily lives and routines can be considered a security breach and a threat to personal information since most of these things are not operating locally but rather works as a portal to a computational cloud. The authors then discuss areas of research that would be needed to continue the development of ubiquitous computing.

Spencer Gray 21:30:55 9/27/2017

In the first paper, The Computer for the 21st Century, the author describes the idea of ubiquitous computing as the technologies that seem to disppear into our normal lives. We become so accustomed to and reliant upon these technologies that we cannot imagine life without them. This paper is so significant because it perfectly predicted the future of human computer interaction. At this point, smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops, smartwatches, and even automobiles are all integrated. We can seamlessly transition between these devices. They can interact with each other. Many of the virtual office sharing technologies that the author describes in his future scenario exist today. It was very interesting to read this paper because so much of it has come true, and will continue to come true. It can help us predict that technologies such as virtual reality or augmented reality will become more and more ubiquitous and prepare accordingly. The second paper, Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing, took a more scientific approach to the study of ubiquitous computing. The authors described natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access systems. The authors described the successes and challenges of current and future applications of each of these types. This paper is significant in the HCI field because it highlights the future directions that ubiquitous computing must take. Even though it was written in 2000, the principles exemplified in this paper are still important today. Topics such as privacy and security are even more relevant today than they were back then. Context-aware computing such as augmented reality have improved since this was published, but the idea of a "user probing the world with a tool" remains the same.

Xingtian Dong 21:39:16 9/27/2017

1. Reading critique for ‘The computer for the 21st century’ I think the author brought out a lot of concepts that are very popular today. Like ‘tabs’ the author brought out is a commonly used technique in today’s browsers. And ‘pad’ is now everywhere in the world. Other like ‘virtual reality’ is also a hot topic today. Something that impressed me most is that the author analyzed the technology required for ubiquitous computing. I think it is embedded system or maybe system on a chip. Another thing is that the author foresaw the network connection for mobile devices which are tiny-range wireless, long range wireless and very high speed wired. The first two method is wifi and mobile data in today’s word. I think this paper is very interesting, but I think it is not helpful for us. Because the author brought out the new concepts by his experience and imagination. But he doesn’t make it an methodology to show how to analyze present techniques and forecast future necessaries. 2. Reading critique for ‘Charting past, present, and future research in Ubiquitous computing’ The first paper brought out the concept of ubiquitous computing, and then the second paper summarize the development of this concept. At least it give me a good example of how a concept developed from being brought out. This paper gave me a more clearly expression of ubiquitous. Actually I think it is like multimedia programming and artificial intelligence. The author summarize the current progress and problems. What is more important I think is the author brought out how to evaluate ubiquitous computing systems. It is helpful for us to learn how to design methods to evaluate a new concept.

Mingzhi Yu 22:23:37 9/27/2017

In the computer for the 21st century, the author came up with a new way to think how the computers will work in the human world. It provides the idea that allows the computers to vanish in the background. Drawing computers out of their electronic shells, we can reach some level of "virtual reality". I perceive this concept as another form of computer, for example, the iPad from Apple. I am thinking what if we take one more step, isn't something we are calling "AR" or "VR" today? Look back to the time this article is published, most of what the author predicted came true or are coming true. I could not appreciate more how insightful the author is. And the author threw the idea of "ubiquitous computing" afterward, which is a more general but the insightful idea at that time. The technology nowadays is heading for this goal. The computer is everywhere that you even did not notice. Systems embedded in our daily life. They are not a single object anymore. The computer is changing and emerging to human world quietly. "Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing" is a review or the following discussion about last paper. It summarized the concept of ubiquitous computing and the constraint condition of achieving this goal. The author of this paper came up its own understanding of this concept and added the time dimension to it. This makes the goal more complicated. This paper is published after the last one and it summarizes the progress and achievement that human being already has of trying to have toward the goal of ubiquitous computing. I personally think the author is also very insightful even though this is only a following discussion about the ubiquitous computing concept. The author came up with some questions and guessing about the challenge that is blocking or will block the way( Even though some of the challenges has been solved today). In general, this is a very valuable work that shows some outstanding and thoughtful prediction of the future computing.

Amanda Crawford 23:16:51 9/27/2017

• The Computer for the 21st Century, Mark Weiser, Scientific American, September 1991, pp. 94 - 104. Weiser's paper titled "The Computer for the 21st Century", discusses the idea of integrating information technology into the fabric of everyday life. He begins his discussion on his adverse belief that the current state of technology would not allow this idea. He believed that developing technology as a tool required conscientious effort which is the inverse of everyday life technologies. Instead of developing technologies that augmented the user's world, Weiser suggested that we flip this concept inside out and develop technologies that embodied virtuality within the user's world. This theory steps in the direction of thinking about how devices can learn more about the human as opposed to previous beliefs that users should learn about the technology. Weiser's research at PARC was interesting, as it identified an every day object, such as paper, and how to transform it into a more robust artifact, in which they called, Pads. Weiser view manifested from the fact that everyday things are transportable and small. His theory is that the prices of computing parts would become cheaper and smaller. In addition, technology allowed devices to begin communicating with each other at a faster and more accessible pace than before. He identified the gateway of online collaboration through portable ubiquitous devices and gave a brief model through his work. • Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing, Gregory Abowd, Elizabeth Mynatt, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7(1), 2000, pp. 29 - 58. Abowd and Mynatt's paper on "Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing" surveys research related to ubiquitous computing at their time and the future of this field of research through the identification of the current challenges. Branched off of Weiser's "The Computer for the 21st Century" paper, Abowd and Mynatt dissects the challenging concept of creating everyday computing applications into solvable components. The challenges can be addressed based on three themes: natural interfaces, context awareness, capture and access. This paper discussed several challenges at the time of their writing, in which we can see manifestations today. For example, capturing and access has been a continuous evolution when it comes to developing everyday devices, such as Apple Photos . Abowd and Mynatt suggested that ubiquitous devices should allow users to capture information in their world and to allow constantly available access the information using context based fusion techniques. We can see that in Apple Photos, users are able to access photos freely. In addition, Apple's use of context awareness in their application can be seen on the locations in which users took photos, automatic clustering of contextually similar photos, and much more. Abowd and Mynatt also discussed evaluation techniques when developing and testing systems that would embody continuous and user centric principles. They called on a new approach that would diverge from creating applications solely from a short term task and operations oriented perspective and to a long term user and operation perspective. By doing so, they suggested that the current testing procedures would no longer fit the standard methods since a user's context is deterministic. It would be more fitting to test systems through the studies of user interactions as opposed to static testing frameworks. This seems like the beginning of the agile methodology, in a since that you would develop small prototypes, test, and deployment so that you may receive instant feedback.

Mehrnoosh Raoufi 23:24:06 9/27/2017

The computer for the 21st century: In this paper that belongs to 26 years ago, the author tries to give us a perspective of what future computers would be. He believes computer design must be in a way that goes to the background of daily life so that people feel it invisible. Thit is how ubiquitous computing works. The author gives an example of the technology of writing. We see it almost everywhere but we don't actually recognize as it has become very familiar to us. He embodies a world with thousands of computers in form of tabs and pads in each room. In such a world, everything is done by automation. From door opening to smart greeting to people. This description might sound very imaginary at the time of paper written. However, today, it turns out to be true. By the grace of IoT which is a hot and flourishing field, many of authors predictions become true today. I think it is a fairly good predictive hypothetical made in those days. The author argues that instead of humans adapting to machine environment it is the machine that should be adapted to the human environment.------------------------------------------------------------------ Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This paper, firstly talks about the history of ubiquitous computing and its challenges.The author takes a look at the history of ubiquitous computing from three aspects; natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. In natural interfaces, we intend to make intuitive feeling for users. Therefore, the use of inputs such as mouse and keyboards need to be made as easy as possible. The problem with these interfaces is their errors which are inevitable. It is difficult to prevent the errors because some of them are those exist in human recognition. Nonetheless, researchers have tried to find methods for error detection, reduction, and correction. In content-aware computing, it is said that if the machine is aware of context it would be able to do various jobs. The information includes who the user is, what task needs to be done, where and when it is taking place and the reason behind it. This results in more real interfaces with higher perception. In the end, the author talks about the future direction of research in this field and how ubiquitous computing can be improved to get closer to the reality of our world. This paper provides a good inspiration for what today technology is chasing. ​​‌

Charles Smith 0:06:20 9/28/2017

On: 21st Century The author of this paper takes the idea of having computers be used so often, we forget that they’re technology, like writing has become. He proposed a world where three devices were found everywhere and interacted seamlessly with each other. While not exactly as described in his paper, we are living in this world. There are computers all around all the time, controlling everything. Lights, thermostats, watches, televisions, cameras, etc. are found everywhere and all have computers in the, interacting with each other. The author of this paper also thinks of only 3 main computer types, while today, with computers in everything, there are hundreds of thousands of different types. The world seems to have already adopted an adaptation of his original idea. On: Charting Past, Present, and Future This paper takes a look at some of the opportunities for development of ubiquitous computing devices. This includes the betterment of input sources, looking at contexts and, automated capturing of information. The ideas in this paper seem much more in line with today that the other paper we had to read. This paper assumes many different kinds of devices and many different kinds of ways to control them. It also gives better examples of how its ideas can be used. This paper, however, seems to cover almost too many topics. The author talks about handwriting in one paragraph, and GPS systems in the next. While thinking about ubiquitous computing in many contexts is important, several more focused papers may have conveyed the author’s purpose better.

Yuhuan Jiang 1:21:36 9/28/2017

Paper Critiques for 09/27/2017 == Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing == This paper is a review/survey of the history of the development of ubicomp (ubiquitous computing) research. The authors first identified three themes for the challenges in ubicomp: (1) a natural interface that facilitate richer communication capabilities, (2) context-ware abilities, and (3) automation of the capturing of live experiences and universal access to those experiences later on. Then, the paper review some significant achievements in these themes. For interaction, handwriting recognition was used as an example, and the error handling techniques such as error reduction/discovery are discussed. For context-aware computing, GPS-based navigation systems were investigated to illustrate the concepts 5 W’s (who, what, where, when, and why) which consists of a good minimal set of necessary context. For automatized capture and access to live experiences, the KARMA system of augmented views is investigated. To relate the paper to today’s technologies, we notice the example on Page 36 of the paper (the NaviCam system). This is an early implementation of augmented reality. It required some special tags (such as the four vertical bars in Fig. 1). Nowadays, with the development of computer vision, AR applications can, for example, find a flat surface or any other targets automatically. == The Computer for the 21 Century == This paper introduces futuristic concepts of ubiquitous computing. It covers a great variety situations where computing devices can be helpful. For example, in a meeting room, attendants can gather around a live board for discussion. The Active Badge can broadcast the identity of its wearer to automatic doors. Wireless networks can make pocket-size devices portable. Computer scratchpads can augment the conventional screen with functionalities of a piece of paper. The authors also mentioned about security/privacy issues when all personal data are stored on electronic devices. But the authors believed that cryptographic techniques will be effective in protecting user privacy. To relate to todays technologies, the advent of consumer products such as iPad and iPhone is one big step toward ubiquitous computing. But we still have a long way to go. For example, foldable, or curveable screens are still not widely applied. Such screens can enable a display-centric world, where information can be displayed on any surface.

Ronian Zhang 3:13:21 9/28/2017

The computer for the 21st century: this paper talks about the author’s envision about what computers should be like in the future. The author argues that the concept of computer should be pushed into the background. if they are convenient enough, we shouldn’t even be aware of dealing with them. It is very far-sighted (since the paper is written in 1991), it successfully predicted the hardware of the future: the resolution for screen, the data storage, usb drive and also the network capabilities. But his “tab, pad, board” prototype is still unaccomplished. I believe the problem is the software part: the designers today forget to think outside the box. The software still reminds us what we device are using every minute, it hasn’t been faded into the background, however the technology is advanced enough. When sending files from MacBook to iPad, it’s still very inconvenient: chose file, open air drop, find the iPad device among a long device list and have to take action on the iPad, even though the process of doing so could be much better optimized. When finding a interesting video on website on the MacBook, there is no way to share it directly to the iPad! The devices around us is physically connected (by network or blue-tooth), by they are not actually connecting. Even today’s hottest topic “Iot” still focus on collecting a huge amount of sensor data, but not making them really connected (as said in the paper, the real power is the interaction between devices). The badge mentioned will be a big evolution if it’s applied in daily life: the door could sense your identity, and automatically unlock itself for you without having to enter the password; when getting a Starbuck, there is no need to swipe the credit card: the fee is already payed automatically by the badge; when entering hospital, there is no need to register or show your id, the badge which connected to the pc of the reception have already helped your entering information needed into the system. That is the really power of computer. ————————————————————————————— Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing: In this paper, the author mainly 3 themes: natural interface, context-aware application, and automated capture and access, he gives background (achievements) of former research and also point out the challenges. I totally agree with the idea that natural interface is of vital importance. If is human’s habit, we could better use the technology without changing the structure of doing certain tasks. Just like apple pen, before iPad Pro, I never use annotations in pdf files. By using a touch screen and keyboard, making notes on a tablet is very convenient, however, barely are there any people use it. We just prefer the way that we are used to. Also the discussion about error-correction points out where the wrong way lies. In order to incorporate the information, understanding the context is very important (even though I believe the concept of context is very straight forward, there is no need to explain that much), since it could give us much clues of merging the information and make connections between data and human activity. The last topic is seemingly the most challenging part: finding index(key time point) & make them synchronized is most difficult part for multi-captured stream. Unlike the fixed desktop interface, the information from everyday computing is much more flexible and hard to manage or understand. Even after this is solved, how to make the data usable is still a impenetrable forest (till now there is no way for use to manager recorded audio, there is no way to preview.). Legal issues on privacy might be the great barrier besides those technical issues.The evaluation would also be hard, if someone could come up with a way to measure, the way and focus of dealing with ubiquitous computing might be clear.

Ruochen Liu 8:50:31 9/28/2017

1. The Computer for the 21st Century: This paper was published on Scientific American in 1991. It presented the main idea about future of computer in the 21st century. Also, the development trend and challenges were also analyzed. Reading the paper in the past makes me think a lot. It offer me the great chance to examine the previous prediction and look back to the very beginning of an excellent design or technology. I can make a comparison between the past and the current situation and I think I can learn a lot from this kind of comparison. Just like historians reading the old history books to find answers, we technicians and researchers should also look back and then take a moment to judge the current design or future plan. I believe that both the similarities and differences can be helpful for the adjustment. Just as the author said, “the most profound technologies are those that disappear”. A really mature technology should be invisible in everyday life. But the silicon-based technology, which contains almost all of the devices used by human beings, are far away from becoming a part of the environment even now. The promoter of ubiquitous computing hope the computers that are embed in the environment or everyday tools can make the interaction between human and computers more naturally and more invisible. One of the targets of ubiquitous computing is that the devices should sense the environment and automatically make changes to meet the user’s need. Today, in 2017, we can say that there is still a long way to go. 2. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing: This paper was published on ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction in 2000, nine years after The Computer for the 21st Century were published. First, this paper investigated the brief history of ubiquitous computing by exploring some interaction themes. Then, some of the remaining research challenges for human-computer interaction researchers were presented. Also, this paper explained the necessity for ubiquitous computing to explore human routine activities. In the end, a conclusion was made by presenting the reflections on interaction themes and evaluating the ubicomp systems based on the strategies at that time.